They compare four models of decision making, including traditional preference maximization and rational indecision, 2006. ,

, Using a modified Houtman-Maks index, they identify from which preference order each observed choices are and therefore to which model decision makers are the closest. 42.7% of the data is closest to traditional utility maximization. The other models explain 21% to rational indecision and the rest, They were 28% of utility maximizers and 5% of rationally indecisive decision makers

, Deferring was costly, and a significant proportion of decision makers postponed their choice. Deferring offered the possibility to look at each headphone and test them. One question raised in this experiment is whether they have investigated incomplete preferences or intransitive indifference. Indeed, the alternatives are similar to each other, and the main reason for postponing choice, Their experiment is closed to this one, as subjects chose in the powerset of five alternatives (different headphones close in values)

Unlike them, I do so by directly asking subjects for an ?-correspondence, and in some cases, I identify the choice correspondence of decision makers, 2016. ,

, Partial Order Rationalizability

characterize partial orders rationalizability by three axioms: outcast 29 , concordance 30 , and heredity 31, 2007. ,

, (?) If an alternative is chosen in a set, it is also chosen in any subset

, The axiom has various names in the literature: ? in Sen, 1954.

, Heredity is also known as Sen (1971)'s ?, Chernoff (1954)'s postulate 4, Arrow (1959)'s condition 3

, A choice correspondence satisfies concordance, i.e., ?, if and only if any alternative chosen in two different sets is chosen in the unions: for all

, ? is a bottom-up condition: choices in small sets constrain choices in large sets

, A choice correspondence satisfies outcast if and only any subset S ? of S is made of alternatives that are not chosen in S, then removing these alternatives from S does not change the chosen alternatives

s theorem 2.9 shows that a choice correspondence jointly satisfies outcast, heredity (?) and concordance (?) if and only if a partial order rationalizes it. References Agranov, Marina and Pietro Ortoleva, Journal of Political Economy, vol.125, pp.40-68, 2007. ,

Utility maximization, choice and preference, pp.1-283, 2007. ,

DOI : 10.1007/978-3-662-04992-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00197186

Estimating Time Preferences from Convex Budgets, American Economic Review, vol.102, pp.3333-3356, 2012. ,

DOI : 10.3386/w16347

URL : https://doi.org/10.3386/w16347

A Definition of Subjective Probability, The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol.34, pp.199-205, 1963. ,

The Determinateness of the Utility Function, The Economic Journal, vol.49, pp.453-467, 1939. ,

Rational Choice Functions and Orderings, Economica 26, vol.102, p.121, 1959. ,

Utility Theory without the Completeness Axiom, pp.445-462, 1962. ,

Knightian decision theory. Part I, Decisions in Economics and Finance 25, vol.2, pp.1129-6569, 2002. ,

Predictive Power in Behavioral Welfare Economics, 2017. ,

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01489252

Violations of the betweenness axiom and nonlinearity in probability, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, vol.8, issue.2, pp.895-5646, 1994. ,

Search and Satisficing, American Economic Review, vol.101, issue.7, pp.2899-2922, 2011. ,

Revealed Incomplete Preferences Under Uncertainty: Evidence for Bewley Preferences, SSRN Electronic Journal 11429, pp.1556-5068, 2016. ,

Rational Selection of Decision Functions, Econometrica 22, vol.4, p.422, 1954. ,

Axiomatic utility theories with the betweenness property, Annals of Operations Research, vol.19, issue.1, pp.1572-9338, 1989. ,

Consistency and Heterogeneity of Individual Behavior under Uncertainty, American Economic Review, issue.5, pp.1921-1938, 1921. ,

Who Is (More) Rational?, In: American Economic Review, vol.104, pp.1518-50, 2014. ,

Choice, Deferral and Consistency, p.58, 2016. ,

Revealed preference and indifferent selection". en, Mathematical Social Sciences, vol.55, issue.1, pp.24-37, 2008. ,

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00872255

Aggregating sets of von NeumannMorgenstern utilities, Journal of Economic Theory, vol.148, pp.663-688, 2013. ,

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00788647

Are Preferences Complete?: An Experimental Measurement of Indecisiveness Under Risk, 2006. ,

An axiomatic characterization of preferences under uncertainty: Weakening the independence axiom, Journal of Economic Theory, vol.40, issue.86, pp.90076-90077, 1986. ,

The effect of multicriteria conflict on the expression of preferences : an empirical study, 2013. ,

The Effect of Forced Choice on Choice, Journal of Marketing Research, vol.40, pp.146-160, 2003. ,

Individual risk attitudes: Measurement, determinants, and behavioral consequences, Journal of the European Economic Association, vol.9, p.15424766, 2011. ,

Indifference or indecisiveness? Choice-theoretic foundations of incomplete preferences, Games and Economic Behavior, vol.56, p.8998256, 2006. ,

DOI : 10.1016/j.geb.2005.06.007

z-Tree: Zurich toolbox for ready-made economic experiments, pp.1386-4157, 2007. ,

DOI : 10.1007/s10683-006-9159-4

Intransitive Indifference in Preference Theory: A Survey, Operations Research, vol.18, pp.207-228, 1970. ,

Monotone threshold representations, Theoretical Economics 11.3, pp.757-772, 2016. ,

DOI : 10.3982/te1547

URL : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.3982/TE1547

Indecisiveness, Undesirability and Overload Revealed Through Rational Choice Deferral, The Economic Journal, 1988. ,

DOI : 10.1111/ecoj.12500

URL : https://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/bitstream/10023/17356/1/DEFERRAL.pdf

Subject pool recruitment procedures: organizing experiments with ORSEE, Journal of the Economic Science Association, vol.1, issue.1, pp.2199-6776, 2015. ,

DOI : 10.1007/s40881-015-0004-4

URL : https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs40881-015-0004-4.pdf

Handbook on Approval Voting, Studies in Choice and Welfare, vol.1, 2010. ,

Semiorders and a Theory of Utility Discrimination, Econometrica 24, vol.2, pp.178-191, 1956. ,

Incomplete preferences and rational intransitivity of choice, Games and Economic Behavior, vol.50, pp.255-277, 2005. ,

DOI : 10.1016/j.geb.2004.02.007

URL : http://personal.rhul.ac.uk/uhte/035/incomplete%20preferences.geb.pdf

Categorize Then Choose: Boundedly Rational Choice and Welfare". en, Journal of the European Economic Association, vol.10, pp.1542-4774, 2012. ,

DOI : 10.1111/j.1542-4774.2012.01078.x

Choice functions over a finite set: A summary, pp.176-1714, 1985. ,

DOI : 10.1007/bf00437315

Rational choice and revealed preference without binariness, In: Social Choice and Welfare, vol.14, pp.176-1714, 1997. ,

DOI : 10.1007/s003550050075

Utility representation of an incomplete and nontransitive preference relation, 2016. ,

Utility Representation of an Incomplete Preference Relation, Journal of Economic Theory, vol.104, pp.429-449, 2002. ,

DOI : 10.1006/jeth.2001.2814

Revealed (P)Reference Theory". en, American Economic Review 105.1, pp.2-8282, 2015. ,

DOI : 10.1257/aer.20111046

Indifference or Indecisiveness: a strict Discrimination, 2017. ,

A Note on the Pure Theory of Consumer's Behaviour, Economica 5, vol.17, p.61, 1938. ,

Does uncertainty cause inertia in decision making? An experimental study of the role of regret aversion and indecisiveness, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, vol.136, pp.1-14, 2017. ,

The foundations of statistics, Courier Corporation, 1954. ,

Choice Functions and Revealed Preference, The Review of Economic Studies, vol.38, p.745, 1971. ,

DOI : 10.2307/2296384

Reference-dependent subjective expected utility, Journal of Economic Theory, vol.111, pp.172-191, 2003. ,

Rationalizability of menu preferences, Economic Theory 65, vol.4, pp.917-934, 2018. ,

, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior: 3d Ed, 1953.