Is OpenStreetMap suitable for urban climate studies ?

Jonathan Lao 1 Erwan Bocher 2 Gwendall Petit 1 Sylvain Palominos 1 Elisabeth Le Saux 1 Valéry Masson 3
Lab-STICC - Laboratoire des sciences et techniques de l'information, de la communication et de la connaissance
Lab-STICC - Laboratoire des sciences et techniques de l'information, de la communication et de la connaissance
Abstract : In order to assess the impact on cities on the regional climate, either present or future, an adequate description of the cities is needed. In global climate models, cities are most often not represented. In high-resolution climate models, they are now physically represented by dedicated surfaces schemes, as TEB (Town Energy Balance) model (Masson 2000). However, the urban description itself is most often very crude, based on land cover classes. First these land cover classes are at typically 1km of resolution, a coarse resolution from the stakeholders point of view, and secondly, the urban parameters associated with these classes are uniform for each class (same building height for all suburban areas for example). Recently, the Local Climate Zones concept has been proposed by Steward and Oke (2012), and is widely accepted as a reference in the urban climate community. It classifies the urban tissues and the surrounding land cover in classes (10 urban classes). Mills et al (2015) propose a methodology and a toolchain to build a world climate database on the physical geographies of cities. The World Urban Database and Portal Tool (WUDAPT) project categorizes data in 3 levels : - Level 0 describes a city in terms of its constituent neighbourhood types using the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) scheme (Stewart and Oke, 2012). - Level 1 refines the parameters for each LCZ through sampling. These data will capture information on UFF at a finer spatial resolution and in greater details. - Level 2 refines the data still further by integrating available data sources that can provide accurate parameter values at a fine spatial resolution, suited for boundary - layer modelling. The WUDAPT methodology is to use landsat images in order to classify the LCZ with pixels at 100m of resolution. Each city would be processed and validated by a scientist having local knowledge. While very promising to acquire urban data for urban climate modeling anywhere in the world, the resolution still is relatively coarse (100m), and there is no description of the morphological or architectural parameters yet. Those parameters are still uniform for each class. Bocher et al (2018) present an open geoprocessing framework to calculate standardized urban indicators at three geographic scales : building, block and a reference spatial unit (RSU). Called MApUCE database and based on a fine vector database provided by the French National Geographical Institute (IGN), it offers new opportunities to extend the WUDAPT database at a finest scale (with morphological, architectural and socioeconomic indicators). However because WUDAPT intends to classify the urban fabric by climate properties from homogeneous and available data at world scale, there is a need to investigate other databases. OpenStreetMap (OSM) is one of the most famous user-generated map. Its popularity is growing steadily, as evidenced by the number of users and the multiplication of uses. Due to its world geographic coverage , OSM constitutes an opportunity for environmental studies by opening-up possibilities for comparative scientific studies on several territories at the same time. This paper describes a methodology and a set of tools to check the availability of the OSM data to feed the MApUCE geoprocessing chain and thus urban climate studies. We propose an open source framework to : - Query on the fly the OSM database from a country code, - Compute spatial and attribute metrics on the country, - Store the results on a multi-dimensional database, - Visualise the results from a dashboard service that integrates chart and map representations at different scales : time, attributes, geography.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 18, 2018 - 3:59:15 PM
Last modification on : Monday, February 25, 2019 - 3:14:16 PM


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  • HAL Id : halshs-01898612, version 1


Jonathan Lao, Erwan Bocher, Gwendall Petit, Sylvain Palominos, Elisabeth Le Saux, et al.. Is OpenStreetMap suitable for urban climate studies ?. OGRS2018, Open Source Geospatial Research & Education Symposium, Oct 2018, LUGANO, Switzerland. ⟨halshs-01898612⟩



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