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Conflict and Migration in the Middle East: Syrian Refugees in Jordan and Lebanon

Abstract : Since the outbreak of the Syrian conflict in 2011, nearly 5 million refugees settled in neighbouring countries. This massive refugee movement follows others, such as the forced exile of Palestinians after the creation of the State Israel in 1948, Lebanese from 1975 to 1990 or the Iraqis since the early 1980s (Chatty 2010). Refugee movements are one of the major consequences of the political crises in the Middle East in recent decades. As a result, the region is hosting one of the largest refugee populations in the world, while most of the host countries (except Turkey and Israel with time and geographical restrictions) are not signatories of the Geneva Convention of 1951. In consequence there is no specific asylum legislation in these host countries (Kagan, 2011). The region is also characterized by a strong and ancient human mobility as a result of regional economic disparities and transnational social ties (Marfleet, 2007). Today's forced migration movements appear to be linked with previous cross border migration at a regional level. Current geographical distribution of Syrian refugees is partially shaped by pre-existing ties and regional labour migration. This chapter will focus first on the socio-political consequences of the mass arrival of Syrian refugees in Lebanon and Jordan. It will focus more specifically on the gradual changes of migration policies in both countries and its consequences on migration patterns. Special attention will be placed on Palestinians refugees from Syria, who face double displacement. It will then analyse the forms of settlement of the Syrian refugees in both countries, with a focus on Jordan. The Syrian crisis has lead to a shift in the Jordanian settlement policy. Until 2012, when Zaatari camp was opened in Northern Jordan, the reluctance of the authorities of the host countries to open new camps was based on the fear of permanent settlement of refugees on their territory, as it is the case for Palestinians.
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Contributor : Kamel Doraï <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, August 21, 2018 - 7:49:34 PM
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Kamel Doraï. Conflict and Migration in the Middle East: Syrian Refugees in Jordan and Lebanon. Marianna Karakoulaki, Laura Southgate and Jakob Steiner. Critical Perspectives on Migration in the Twenty-First Century, E-International Relations Publishing, pp.113-126, 2018, ISBN 978-1-910814-41-3. ⟨halshs-01859269⟩



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