J. See, G. M. Boli, and . Thomas, Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations since 1875, 1999.

T. Davies, NGOs: A New History of Transnational Civil Society, 2013.

, Shaping the Transnational Sphere: Experts, Networks and Issues from the 1840s to the 1930s, 2015.

C. Topalov, Laboratoires du nouveau siècle: les nébuleuse réformatrice et ses réseaux en France, pp.1880-1914, 1999.

, The Palgrave Handbook of Global Philanthropy, 2015.

, Editorial Problems and Policies' (Appendix 10.3), in UIA, Yearbook of International Organizations, vol.1, pp.15-21, 2015.

E. Brian, Le cas du Congrès international de statistique (1853-1876)' , Mil Neuf Cent. Revue d'histoire Intellectuelle, vol.7, pp.9-22, 1989.

C. Prochasson, Les Congrès: lieux de l' échange intellectuel. Introduction' , Mil Neuf Cent, vol.7, pp.5-8, 1989.

. See-anne-rasmussen, Triggers of Mobility: International Congresses (1840-1914) and their Visitors' , in Mobility and Biography, Jalons pour une histoire des congrès internationaux au XIXe siècle: régulation scientifique et propagande intellectuelle' , Relations Internationales, vol.62, pp.63-82, 1976.

S. E. Baldwin, The International Congresses and Conferences of the Last Century as Forces Working Toward the Solidarity of the World, The American Journal of International Law, vol.1, issue.3, pp.565-78, 1907.

J. Culbert and F. , The Rise of Internationalism, p.6, 1915.

. Faries, The Rise of Internationalism, p.73

, Faries himself established this classification. Ibid., 47 et seq

, Les Congrès Internationaux de 1681 à 1899, Liste Complète (Brussels: UIA, 1960) and Les Congrès Internationaux de 1900 à 1919, Liste Complète, 1964.

, On this subject, see Elizabeth Bloodgood, 'The Yearbook of International Organizations and Quantitative Non-State Actor Research, Reinalda, The Ashgate Research Companion to Non-State Actors, pp.19-34, 2017.

E. L. Bush, Measuring Religion in Global Civil Society, Social Forces, vol.85, issue.4, pp.1645-65, 2007.

, Les Congrès Internationaux de, p.3, 1900.

, This classification is based on the United Nations geoscheme of the UN Statistics Division, M.49 standard

, Les Congrès internationaux liés aux Expositions universelles de Paris (1867-1900)' , Mil Neuf Cent, vol.7, pp.23-44, 1989.

T. Tapia, Conférences et congrès internationaux de 1815 à 1913' . See, for example, p.15

, The famous 'blue banana, Les Villes 'européennes, 1989.

, Berne (106) and Washington DC (100)

D. Quah, The Global Economy's Shifting Centre of Gravity, Global Policy, vol.2, issue.1, pp.3-9, 2011.

, Editorial Problems and Policies'), vol.10, p.26, 2018.

N. Berkovitch, The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement' , in Boli and Thomas, Constructing World Culture, pp.100-127

, The UIA can also be seen as a service provider for INGOs that pay a membership fee, and many grassroots movements cannot do that

, For around half the organizations in the period between 1800 and 1979, the location of their headquarters is unknown

J. Boli and G. Thomas, INGOs and the Organization of World Culture, Constructing World Culture, pp.32-35

, Introducing Global Civil Society' , 5. This was especially so in low-and middleincome countries

J. Boli, G. M. Thomas, ;. Boli, and T. , Constructing World Culture; Bloodgood, 'The Yearbook of International Organizations and Quantitative Non-State Actor Research, American Sociological Review, vol.62, issue.2, pp.19-33, 1997.

, In some cases, we could not find a match as the ID number had changed after 1988. We continued to work only with the organizations we could match, as this enabled us to use the additional variables in the BT file and make comparisons between the BT classification and that of the UIA, 1973.

T. Boli, drew up their own classification. See idem, 'INGOs and the Organization of World Culture, p.49

, The 2016 Yearbook lists 202 organizations founded before 1800 because it covers many other types of organization than are in our dataset

, The Uneven Geography of Global Civil Society: National and Global Influences on Transnational Association, Boli and Thomas, vol.84, pp.621-52, 2005.

, Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism, 2011.

N. Davies, ;. Boli, and T. , INGOs and the Organization of World Culture' , 23. See also two seminal studies: Kjell Skjelsbaek, 'The Growth of International Nongovernmental Organization in the Twentieth Century, International Organization, vol.25, issue.3, pp.420-462, 1971.

M. Wallace and J. Singer, Intergovernmental Organization in the Global System, 1815-1964: A Quantitative Description, International Organization, vol.24, issue.2, pp.239-87, 1970.