, Author's Note: The author strongly thanks the journal's anonymous referees for their suggestions , as well as the editors for their encouragement, support, and edits

J. Mouawad and H. Baumann, Search of the Lebanese State, pp.60-65, 2017.

, Some scholars have recently criticized the label " neoliberal " as vague and overblown. This paper does not address this debate. See Gilles Pinson and Christelle Morel Journel The Neoliberal City: Theory, Evidence, Debates, Territory, Politics, Governance, vol.4, issue.2, pp.137-53, 2016.

M. Krijnen and M. Fawaz, Exception as the Rule: High-End Developments in Neoliberal Beirut 117-31; and Heiko Schmid Privatized Urbanity or a Politicized Society? Reconstruction in Beirut after the Civil War, Built Environment European Planning Studies, vol.36, issue.14 3, pp.365-81, 2006.

M. Fawaz, The Politics of Property in Planning: Hezbollah's Reconstruction of Haret Hreik (Beirut, Lebanon) as Case Study, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol.34, issue.3, p.34, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/1467-8330.00249

J. Mouawad and H. Baumann, Wayn al-Dawla? Locating the Lebanese State in Social Theory, Arab Studies Journal, vol.25, issue.1, pp.67-91, 2017.

S. Graham and S. Marvin, Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition, 2001.
DOI : 10.4324/9780203452202

O. Coutard, Placing splintering urbanism: Introduction, Geoforum, vol.39, issue.6, pp.1815-1835, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.geoforum.2008.10.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00572257

P. Lascoumes and P. L. Galès, Introduction: Understanding Public Policy through Its Instruments?From the Nature of Instruments to the Sociology of Public Policy Instrumentation, Governance, vol.9, issue.3, 2007.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511659935

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01400189

D. Lorrain, Governing Megacities in Emerging Countries, issue.2, 2014.

M. Kaika and E. Swyngedouw, Fetishizing the modern city: the phantasmagoria of urban technological networks, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol.24, issue.1, pp.120-158, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/1468-2427.00239

D. Lorrain, Les pilotes invisibles de l'action publique: Le désarroi du politique? " in Gouverner par les instruments, pp.163-95, 2004.

, Understanding Public Policy Through Its Instruments 14 The 2012-13 surveys were funded through the CEDRE program on Beirut and globalization and the VilMed program run by the city chair of École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (Paris) In light of Mouawad and Baumann's call to search for the Lebanese state, this article revisits data and analysis previously published in French Beyrouth: reconstructions , fragmentation et crises infrastructurelles, 12 Lorrain, Governing Megacities. 13 Lascoumes and Le Galès Métropoles en Méditerranée. Gouverner par les rentes: Presses de Sciences Po, pp.61-108, 2017.

A. Michael and F. Davie, La gestion des services urbaines en temps de guerre, circuits parallèles à Beyrouth, Reconstruire Beyrouth: les paris sur le possible: Études sur le monde arabe, pp.1975-1985, 1988.

, 16 Awada, La gestion des services urbains

É. Verdeil, Beirut: Metropolis of Darkness and the Politics of Urban Electricity Grids, Energy, Power and Protest on the Urban Grid: Geographies of the Electric City, pp.155-75

M. Fawaz, Strategizing for Housing: An Investigation of the Production and Regulation of Low-Income Housing in the Suburbs of Beirut, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004.

. Abu-rish, On Power Cuts, Protests, and Institutions: A Brief History of Electricity in Beirut (Part One), 2014.

C. Nahas, Un programme socio-économique pour le Liban (Beirut: Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, 2006.

É. Verdeil, Entre guerre et reconstruction: remblais et empiétements littoraux à Beyrouth, " in Le Littoral. Regards, pratiques et savoirs -Études offertes À Fernand Verger, pp.319-354, 2002.

M. Rozelier, Déchets solides: une poubelle à ciel ouvert, Le Commerce Du Levant, 2011.

, 24 Unrecorded interview with the engineer responsible for overseeing the waste management sector, who wished to remain nameless, CDR, 2012.

, other politicians seem to have been involved as well, notably Walid Jumblatt See Liban: la crise des déchets: le bout de l'iceberg qui cache une crise du système Middle East Strategic Perspectives Blog, 25 As the operational perimeters widened, 2015.

M. Zbeeb, $5 Million a Year: The Tip of the Sukleen Waste Pile, 2012.

. Localiban, Les Municipalités Libanaises et leur situation au Liban Localiban: Centre de ressources sur le développement local, 2008.

S. Atallah, Liberate the Municipal Fund from the Grip of Politicians Lebanese Center for Policy Studies Déchets solides 30 Ninety-eight percent of investment in this sector came from Lebanese sources, 2015.

. Abu-rish, Garbage Politics, Middle East Report, vol.277, 2015.

. Fawaz, Strategizing for Housing. 33 World Bank, Lebanon -Social Impact Analysis: Electricity and Water Sectors, 2009.

, Republic of Lebanon -Water Sector: Public Expenditure Review, p.17, 2010.

S. Ghiotti, Réforme territoriale de la politique de l' eau au Liban: les logiques naturelles au secours de la modernisation?, Territoires Institutionnels

A. Bleton-ruget, N. Commerçon, P. Gonod, and M. Legay, , pp.507-526, 2006.

C. Allès, The Private Sector and Local Elites: The Experience of Public???Private Partnership in the Water Sector in Tripoli, Lebanon, Mediterranean Politics, vol.198, issue.3, pp.394-409, 2012.
DOI : 10.3917/rtm.198.0421

, Republic of Lebanon -Water Sector. 40 World Bank, Lebanon -Social Impact Analysis. 41 World Bank Study of Project Cost Estimates, Financial and Economic Analyses, 39 World Bank, p.24, 103063.

S. Ghiotti, Territoires hydrauliques au Liban, Grands barrages et habitants: Les risques sociaux du développement, pp.207-231, 2008.

P. Blanc, Proche-Orient: le pouvoir, la terre et l' eau (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2012.

É. Verdeil, ??LECTRICIT?? ET TERRITOIRES??: UN REGARD SUR LA CRISE LIBANAISE, Revue Tiers Monde, vol.198, issue.2, pp.421-457, 2009.
DOI : 10.3917/rtm.198.0421

G. Bassil, Ministry of Energy and Water, Policy Paper for the Electricity Sector, 2010.

K. U. Verdeil and . Hasbani, Electricity Sector Reform in Lebanon: Political Consensus in Waiting, Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law Working Papers, p.38, 2011.

, obtained data regarding the number of subscribers in 2005 from the department of information systems at EDL. For consumption I draw on, Beyrouth et sa région métropolitaine. Atlas Énergétique et Environnemental, 2001.

, 48 Verdeil Électricité et territoires, p.49

. Al-akhbar, English cited an Électricité de France study for the Lebanese government that indicates that the rate of observed power outage is as high as sixty-seven, eighty, or even ninety percent in certain parts of this suburb. Mouhamad Wehbe Solidere Burns Bright While Lebanon Goes Dark, Akhbar English, 2012.

, Electricity Sector Reform in Lebanon 52 Reinoud Leenders mentions several of these affairs in his Spoils of Truce: Corruption and State-Building in Postwar Lebanon, 50 Ibid. 51 Hasbani, 2012.

. Verdeil, Électricité et territoires 54 Verdeil Beirut: Metropolis of Darkness, 55 World Bank, 2008.

, Nahhas Expresses Reservations over Plans to Privatize Telecom The Daily Star, 2009.

, Parliament passed a law proposed by its member Robert Fadel that gave the government two years to arrange deals with private companies willing to invest. The law has been extended for two years, 2014.

, 58 Unrecorded interview with Diala Chaar and Maya Chamli, Higher Privatization Council, 2009.

, 59 For a detailed analysis, see Louis Mandarino De la pérennisation d'un statut précaire à la lutte pour la titularisation: un regard rétrospectif sur la mobilisation des journaliers de l'Électricité du Liban (EDL), Civil Society Knowledge Centre, 2016.

, It remains unknown if the waste sector will be reorganized in the future according to new regional districts, or perhaps decentralized Regarding the discussion of the Greater Beirut limits in light of operational necessities, see Eric Verdeil, 60 For the waste sector Des banlieues à la ville: Espaces et acteurs de la négociation urbaine Élisabeth Longuenesse and Caecilia Pieri, 2015.

K. Darmame and R. B. Potter, Gestion de la raret?? de l'eau ?? Amman : rationnement de l'offre et pratiques des usagers, Gouvernance urbaine et accès à l' eau potable au Maroc, pp.71-89, 2005.
DOI : 10.3917/esp.139.0071