, Tima) Bansal is the Canada Research Chair in Business Sustainability at the Ivey Business School at Western University, Pratima

M. Chiroleu and -. , Assouline is Professor of Environmental Economics at the Paris School of Economics and the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne

, Economix and at Ecole Polytechnique, and co-responsible of the Chair FDIR for Sustainable Finance and Responsible Investment

, Rodolphe Durand is the HEC Foundation Senior Chair Professor of Strategy, and Society and Organizations Center Director at HEC Paris (durand@hec.fr)

. Jean-pascal, Gond is Professor of Corporate Social Responsibility at Cass Business School, City University of London and Director of ETHOS?The Centre for Responsible Enterprise

, Andrew King is Professor of Business Administration at the Tuck School of Business in Hanover

, Michael Lenox is the Tayloe Murphy Professor of Business and the Senior Associate Dean and Chief Strategy Officer at the Darden School of Business

, Michael Toffel is the Senator John Heinz Professor of Environmental Management at the Harvard Business School and Faculty Chair of the HBS Business and Environment Initiative

D. Vogel-is-the-solomon and P. , Lee Chair of Business Ethics and Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of California

, Frank Wijen is an Associate Professor of Strategic Management at Rotterdam School of Management

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, Despite the well-known limitations of both companies' efforts, the specific actions cited here were nonetheless acts of corporate political responsibility at the time they were taken

, See https://www.euractiv.com/section/public-affairs/news/green-businesses-rock-employers- lobby

, expect-more-ceos-to-speak-out-on-vital-issues-risk- ing-the-wrath-of-the-trump-commentary, 2017.

, 183 colleges and universities, 125 cities and 9 states Participating firms include such familiar names as Apple Adidas, Facebook, and Nike, and represent over $6.2 trillion of the U.S. economy. The group's declaration concludes with these words: " It is imperative that the world know that in the United States, the actors that will provide the leadership necessary to meet our Paris commitment are found in city halls, state capitals, colleges and universities, investors and businesses. Together, we will remain actively engaged with the international community as part of the global effort to hold warming to well below 2°C and to accelerate the transition to a clean energy economy that will benefit our security, prosperity, and health

, In addition, the merger of Danone's North American dairy business with WhiteWave has created DanoneWave, the largest benefit corporation in the United States. http://www.csrwire.com/press_releases/39933-Danone-CEO-Announces-Intention-to-Deepen-Work-with- B-Lab

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, There remain restrictions on the amount of money they can contribute directly to politicians' campaigns, but no limits on the amounts they can spend on

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P. Thomas, J. W. Lyon, and . Maxwell, Early drafts of the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 included provisions requiring the registration of firms engaged in astroturf lobbying and the reporting of the expenditures made on those actions Those provisions, however, failed to make it out of committee. As the bill's sponsor, Senator Carl Levin, testified before a House committee considering the bill: 'Every reference to grass roots lobbying?and even to paid efforts to stimulate artificial grass roots lobbying?has been deleted from the bill . . . I am personally disappointed that we were unable to do anything to address the issue of a form of grassroots lobbying referred to as astroturf lobbying, in which lobbyists hire professional experts to run phone banks and generate mail in support of their efforts. In my view, these paid, professional astroturf campaigns bear nothing in common with the genuine grassroots activities, Astroturf: Interest Group Lobbying and Corporate Strategy, pp.561-597, 2004.

, social welfare " groups such as the National Rifle Association or the Sierra Club were allowed to make political expenditures, as long as the group's " primary " purpose is not electoral advocacy. Moreover, these groups are required to disclose only their total political expenditures, but not the identities of their donors Federal Election Commission, the DC Circuit of Appeals ruled that nonprofit organizations created to make " independent " political expenditures (those not formally associated with a particular campaign) did not have to be organized as Political Action Committees, Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission the Supreme Court held 5-4 that taxexempt 501 Speechnow.org vsPACs), and hence could take unlimited amounts of money from corporations as well as from individuals

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, Social and Governance (ESG) ratings and excludes companies involved in Alcohol, Gambling, Tobacco, Military Weapons, Civilian Firearms, Nuclear Power, Adult Entertainment, and Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) The Index aims to serve as a benchmark for investors whose objectives include owning companies with very high ESG ratings and excluding companies involved in the production of products and services with high negative social and/or environmental impact, A related offering is the MSCI KLD 400 Social Index

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, Public Policy Global Sustainability Standards Board, GRI, vol.415

, GRI 415 also provides more detailed guidance on political contributions than Asset4 or Sustainalytics The reporting organization shall report the following information: a. Total monetary value of financial and in-kind political contributions made directly and indirectly by the organization by country and recipient/beneficiary. b. If applicable, how the monetary value of in-kind contributions was estimated

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