P. G. Altbach, Introduction to Higher Education theme issue on the Academic Profession in Central and Eastern Europe, Higher Education, vol.45, issue.4, pp.389-389, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1023949808905

P. G. Altbach, Tradition and Transition. The International Imperative in Higher Education, 2007.

A. Batory and N. Lindstrom, The Power of the Purse: Supranational Entrepreneurship, Financial Incentives, and European Higher Education Policy, Governance, vol.17, issue.4, pp.311-329, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1468-0491.2011.01525.x

T. A. Börzel and T. Risse, When Europe Hits Home: Europeanization and Domestic Change, SSRN Electronic Journal, pp.4-15, 2000.
DOI : 10.2139/ssrn.302768

I. Bruno, P. Clément, and C. Laval, La grande mutation. Néolibéralisme et éducation en Europe, 2010.

M. Canning, M. Godfrey, and D. Holzer-zelazewska, Higher education financing in the new EU member states : leveling the playing field. World Bank working paper ; no.112, 2007.
DOI : 10.1596/978-0-8213-7149-7

I. Cîrstocea, Les restructurations de l?enseignement sup?rieur en Roumanie apr?s 1990 Apprentissage international de la gestion, professionnalisation de l?expertise et politisation de l?enjeu universitaire, Revue d??tudes comparatives Est-Ouest, vol.45, issue.01, pp.125-163, 2014.
DOI : 10.4074/S0338059914001053

I. Cîrstocea, D. Dakowska, and C. Sigman, Avant-propos. Introduction to the special issue Les transformations des espaces académiques centre-est-européens depuis, 2014.

S. Croché, Le pilotage du processus de Bologne, 2010.

D. Dakowska, Between competition imperative and Europeanisation: the case of Higher Education reform in Poland, Higher Education, vol.5, issue.39, pp.129-141, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s10734-014-9765-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01183911

D. Dakowska and R. Harmsen, Laboratories of reform? The Europeanization and internationalization of higher education in Central and Eastern Europe, European Journal of Higher Education, vol.4, issue.3, pp.4-17, 2015.
DOI : 10.1057/cep.2010.7

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01183912

R. Dale, Specifying globalization effects on national policy: a focus on the mechanisms, Journal of Education Policy, vol.14, issue.1, pp.1-17, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/0305-750X(93)90046-C

R. Dale and S. Robertson, Globalisation and Europeanisation in Education, 2009.
DOI : 10.15730/books.61

L. Deca, International norms in the reform of Romanian higher education: a discursive analysis, European Journal of Higher Education, vol.1, issue.1, pp.34-48, 2015.
DOI : 10.1080/17405900903453922

M. Dobbins, Higher Education Policies in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence toward a Common Model?, Houndmills, 2011.
DOI : 10.1057/9780230286467

M. Dobbins and S. Khachatryan, Europeanization in the ?Wild East?? Analyzing higher education governance reform in Georgia and Armenia, Higher Education, vol.2, issue.2008, pp.189-207, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s10734-014-9769-2

M. Dobbins and C. Knill, Higher Education Policies in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence toward a Common Model?, Governance, vol.48, issue.3, pp.397-430, 2009.
DOI : 10.1057/9780230286467

M. Dobbins, Exploring the governance of Polish public higher education: balancing restored historical legacies with Europeanization and market pressures, European Journal of Higher Education, vol.50, issue.3, pp.18-33, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-663-11655-4_5

D. P. Dolowitz and D. Marsh, Learning from Abroad: The Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy-Making, Governance, vol.13, issue.1, pp.5-24, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/0952-1895.00121

D. Flis, 5-2 zamiast 3+2 Pos?owie PiS zapowiadaj? zmiany wa?ne dla studentów (5-2 instead of 3 + 2. PiS MEPs announce important changes for students) Gazeta wyborcza, 2010.

S. Garcia, Europe du savoir contre l'Europe des banques ? La construction de l'espace européen de l'enseignement supérieur. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, pp.166-167, 2007.
DOI : 10.3917/arss.166.0081

D. Georgakakis, Le champ de l'Eurocratie. Une sociologie politique du personnel de l, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00689734

O. Gille-belova, Beyond the limits of the European Higher Education Area: the case of Belarus, European Journal of Higher Education, vol.6, issue.1, pp.83-95, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4020-4616-2

G. Office, Higher Education Institutions and their Finances in 2014, [Statistical Information and Elaborations], 2015.

G. Office, Higher Education Institutions and their Finances in 2012, Statistical Information and Elaborations], Warsaw, p.5, 2012.

J. Huisman, C. Adelman, C. Hsieh, F. Shams, and S. Wilkins, Europe's Bologna Process and Its Impact on Global Higher Education The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education, 2012.

J. De-melo and S. , Regionalising higher education transformation in Europe: what kind of positionality for the Council of Europe in relation to the Bologna Process, pp.142-168, 1999.

J. Jungblut, Partisan Politics in Higher Education Policy, Higher Education in Societies -A Multi Scale Perspective. Sense Publishers, pp.87-112, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-6209-746-9_7

J. Jungblut, Bringing political parties into the picture: a two-dimensional analytical framework for higher education policy, Higher Education, vol.19, issue.3, pp.867-882, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s10734-014-9810-5

R. Keeling, The Bologna Process and the Lisbon Research Agenda: the European Commission's expanding role in higher education discourse, European Journal of Education, vol.41, issue.2, pp.203-223, 2006.
DOI : 10.1057/9780230523364_11

J. Knight, Updated Internationalization definition. International Higher Education, pp.2-3, 2003.
DOI : 10.6017/ihe.2003.33.7391

URL : https://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/ihe/article/download/7391/6588

J. Knight, Internationalization: Concepts, Complexities and Challenges International Handbook of Higher Education, pp.207-227, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4020-4012-2_11

M. Kwiek, From Privatization (of the Expansion Era) to De-privatization (of the Contraction Era): A National Counter-Trend in a Global Context, Higher Education, Stratification and Workforce Development, pp.311-329, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-319-21512-9_16

K. Leuze, K. Martens, A. Rusconi, and . Martens, New Arenas of Educational Governance ? the Impact of International Organizations and Markets on Education Policy Making New Arenas of Education Governance. The Impact of Internatinal Organizations and Markets on Education Policy Making, pp.3-15, 2007.

B. Lingard, Globalisation, the research imagination and deparochialising the study of education, Globalisation, Societies and Education, vol.4, issue.2, pp.287-302, 2006.
DOI : 10.1080/02680930500238945

K. Martens and K. D. Wolf, Boomerangs and Trojan Horses: The Unintended Consequences of Internationalising Education Policy Through the EU and the OECD, European Integration and the Governance of Higher Education and Research, pp.81-107, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4020-9505-4_4

P. Muller and P. Ravinet, Construire l'Europe en r?sistant ? l'UE?? Le cas du processus de Bologne, Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée, pp.653-665, 2008.
DOI : 10.3917/ripc.154.0653

URL : http://spire.sciencespo.fr/hdl:/2441/53r60a8s3kup1vc9k36a12o96/resources/ripc-154-0653.pdf

K. Mundy, Education Multilateralism ? Origins and Indications for Global Governance New Arenas of Education Governance. The Impact of International Organizations and Markets on Education Policy Making, pp.19-39, 2007.

R. Normand, Expertise, Networks and Indicators: The Construction of the European Strategy in Education, European Educational Research Journal, vol.33, issue.4, pp.407-421, 2010.
DOI : 10.2304/eerj.2004.3.1.2

A. Oleksiyenko, Socio-economic forces and the rise of the world-class research university in the post-Soviet higher education space: the case of Ukraine, European Journal of Higher Education, vol.4, issue.3, pp.249-265, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s10734-006-9028-2

P. Pabian, Europeanisation of Higher Education Governance in the Post-Communist Context: The Case of the Czech Republic, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4020-9505-4_11

P. Musselin and . Maassen, European Integration and the Governance of Higher Education and Research, pp.256-278
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01392974

C. Robert, Doing politics and pretending not to. The Commission's role in distributing aid to Eastern Europe, Politics and the European Commission. Actors, interdependence, legitimacy, Routledge/ECPR Studies in Political Science, pp.17-29, 2004.
DOI : 10.4324/9780203356883_chapter_1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00421460

K. Serrano-velarde, Words into deeds: the use of framing strategy in EU higher education policy, Critical Policy Studies, vol.9, issue.1, pp.41-57, 2015.
DOI : 10.2307/2094862

C. Sigman, Les transformations de l'enseignement supérieur en Russie : évolution du secteur public et stratégies d'établissements. Revue d'études comparatives, Est-Ouest, vol.45, issue.1, pp.21-54, 2014.
DOI : 10.4074/s0338059914001028

S. Slantcheva, The Bulgarian Academic Profession in Transition, Higher Education, vol.45, issue.4, pp.425-454, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1023999314660

H. Walkenhorst, Explaining change in EU education policy, Journal of European Public Policy, vol.2, issue.4, pp.567-587, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/1467-3435.00080

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

&. Wilson and . Birch, Political Parties in Ukraine. Virtual and Representational Party Politics in New Democracies, pp.53-83, 2007.
DOI : 10.1080/09668139308412115

C. Woll and S. Jacquot, Using Europe: Strategic action in multi-level politics, Comparative European Politics, vol.27, issue.1, pp.110-142, 2010.
DOI : 10.1017/S0143814X07000633

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01023857

M. Vukasovic, European Integration in Higher Education in the Western Balkan Countries. A review of literature, Working Paper, n° 1, EIHER-WBC Working Paper Series http://www.herdata.org/research/eiher-wbc-working-paper-series, p.60, 2012.

M. Vukasovic, Concluding comments: when international, European and domestic influences collide, European Journal of Higher Education, vol.5, issue.1, pp.96-106, 2015.
DOI : 10.1057/hep.2013.38

F. Poland and U. , which I have conducted in 2010-2015. The interviews were conducted either in English, French, German, Polish or Russian and lasted over an hour on average. Consultation of the Council of Europe archives complemented the empirical part of the research, This research has been funded by a Junior Fellowship of the Institut Universitaire de France