. Beeston-ghul, Arabic at?), 'dw/'dy 'to move' (Arabic 'ad?, 'adw), 'dwr/'dyr 'patrol' (Arabic dawr?yah), kyn/kwn 'to be' (Arabic kawn), r?w(n) / r?y 'good will, satisfaction' (Arabic ri?an) (with additional examples from Hence Arabic firdaws may have been borrowed very early from a Yemenite / Sabaic variant *frdws, which would reflect a dialectal adaptation of (early) Syriac pardays? ? A fluctuation of the diphthongs ay ~ aw is also attested in the highly archaic Andalusian Arabic, e.g. fay?ah 'fragrant emanation' (cf. standard Arabic faw?ah), hawbah 'gravity' (standard Arabic haybah) This fluctuation can be ascribed to the influence of an early Yemenite speech community in al-Andalus, cf, and final positions f., 97). As shown by Corriente, early (pre-standardized) Andalusian Arabic shows a remarkable amount of features that is shared with (Old) South Arabian, p.94, 1943.

<. Syriac-?br?q?, <. *. , <. Early-middle-persian, and *. ?br??, -rizq 'bounty, provision' (< Syriac rwzyq' 'military ration; daily bread' < early Middle Persian r?z?k 'daily bread, sustenance'), -'ifr?t 'demon' (< Judaeo-Babylonian Aramaic ? < (learned) Middle Persian / Parthian *?fr?t < Avestan ?friti-'spirit, force of benediction'), -firdaws 'paradise' (< (?) Sabaic *frdws < Syriac pardays? 'paradise, garden (of Eden)' < Greek parádeisos < Old Iranian *pari-daiza-'hunting domain; garden for growing produce'), -sirb?l 'garment' (< Biblical Aramaic srbly 'tunics' < Old Iranian/Scythian *?arab?ra-, cf. Greek gloss sarábara 'Scythian trousers', Persian ?alw?r 'trousers'), -sir?j 'lamp, torch' (< Syriac *?r?g?/?r??? 'id.' < Parthian ?ir?g/ ?ir??), -sard 'chain armour' (< Aramaic, cf. Syriac zar?? 'id.' < (ultimately) Old Iranian zrad-/zr?d'id .'), -al-maj?s 'Zoroastrians, Magians' (< Syriac mgu?? or (Imperial) Aramaic *mag?? 'id.' < Old Persian magu? 'Magian priest'), -miz?j 'tempering, mixture (in a cup)' (< Syriac mizag 'cup of mixed water and wine (for the Eucharist)' < Middle Persian *?m?zag, H?r?t and M?r?t names of two angels in Babylon (< Judaeo-Aramaic *harw?t, *marw?t ? < ? Sogdian hrwwt, mrwwt) -wardah 'rose-red' (< Aramaic wrd, cf. Syriac ward? 'rose' etc. < Old Iranian *warda-'id.')

. Finally, the following forms are rather not of Iranian origin: -sg. ar?'ik, pl. ar?kah 'couch' (of unknown origin), -siw?r 'bracelet' (< (ultimately) Akkadian ?ewir?, (Old Babylonian) ?awiru 'bracelets'), -waz?r 'helper, assistant; [later, in the 'Abbasid period] vizier, minister' (< Arabic wazara 'to take upon oneself

I. Iranian and . Arabic, Middle) Persian or Parthian/non-Persian Specific phonological criteria can be employed to assess the immediate origin of the Iranian borrowings: -Parthian/Non-Persian z ~ Persian ( * ) d, notably barzax (< Parth. burz 'high' vs. Persian bul?< bul?< early Middle Iranian *b?rd?), -Parthian/Non-Persian -d ~ Persian -y, notably sur?diq

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