. Ibid, 3223. 32 On the sources, veracity, political manipulation, and historiographical functions of omen records, see, for example, Hans Bielenstein, 'An Interpretation of the Portents in the

. Han-shu, The Political Function of Astronomy and Astronomers in Han China, Chinese Thought and Institutions Portents of Protest in the Later Han Dynasty: The Memorials of Hsiang Kai to Emperor Huan in 166 A.D. (Canberra: Australian National University Press in association with the Faculty of Asian Studies, pp.127-143, 1950.

M. Kern, Religious Anxiety and Political Interest in Western Han Omen Interpretation: The Case of the Han Wudi Period, pp.141-87

C. , C. Shigaku-huang-yi-long, ?. Shehui-tianwenxue-shi-shi-jiang, and ?. Shanghai, Fudan daxue chubanshe 1?92. I plan tackle these questions as concerns Li Chunfeng's ??? (a.d. 602?670) compilation of the Book of Sui and Book of Jin monographs in a chapter, Monographs in Tang Official Historiography: Perspectives from the Technical Treatises of the Book of Sui (forthcoming), pp.1-31, 2000.

?. While-jin, Tianwen yao ji ???? in 40 j. 45 The current version of Gautama's Kaiyuan Omen Classic comes in at 120 j., and Li Chunfeng's Yisi zhan at 10 j.; Yu Jicai, in addition to his 115/120-j. Secret Garden of the Observatory, also compiled a Monograph on Hanging Signs (Chui xiang zhi ? ??) in 120/148 j, for example, and celebrated mathematician and li man Zu Geng ??, son of Zu Chongzhi ??? (a.d. 429?500), compiled a Record of Heavenly Patterns (Tianwen lu ???) in 30 j. 46 To put the scale of these compendia into perspective, the Book of Sui bibliographic treatise records 97 works in 675 j. in the Sui (a.d. 581?618) imperial holdings; the aforementioned 8 works alone, by contrast, amount to 455/488 j. Men like Li Chunfeng began to take over the field of of tian-wen at the top?men at the forefront of li who knew better than to treat the planetary 43 Ibid, ) PFG Han Yang ?? compiled a Heavenly Patterns Essential Collection 44 On the history of these bans, see Susan Whitfield, 'Under the Censor's Eye: Printed Almanacs and Censorship in Ninth-Century China', British Library Journal, pp.265-420, 1998.

C. Meidong, ?. Zhongguo-gudai-tianwenxue-sixiang, and ?. , Zhongguo kexue jishu chubanshe Lü Zongli ???, Power of the Words: Chen Prophecy in Chinese Politics, pp.17-32, 2003.

. Weishu-zhong-de-tianwen-ziliao?-hetu-dilanxi-wei-li-'????????, Z. ??????????, ?. Shi-yanjiu, and . ??, On a similar note concerning the anonymous manuscript transmission of hemerological knowledge over the same period, see Marc Kalinowski, 'Les livres des jours (rishu) des Qin et des Han: la logique éditoriale du recueil A de Shuihudi (217 avant notre ère, Mawangdui tianwen shu kaoshiThe Textual Form of Knowledge: Occult Miscellanies in Ancient and Medieval Chinese Manuscripts, Fourth Century B.C. to Tenth Century A.D.', in Looking at It from Asia: The Processes That Shaped the Sources of History of Science Robert S. Cohen, Jürgen Renn, and Kostas Gavroglu, pp.341-351, 2002.