J. Alix-garcia, K. R. Sims, P. Yanez-pagans, V. C. Radeloff, and E. Shapiro, Only One Tree from Each Seed? Environmental Effectiveness and Poverty Alleviation in Mexico???s Payments for Ecosystem Services Program, American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, vol.7, issue.4, 2015.
DOI : 10.1257/pol.20130139

J. M. Alix-garcia, E. N. Shapiro, and K. R. Sims, Forest Conservation and Slippage: Evidence from Mexico's National Payments for Ecosystem Services Program, Land Economics, vol.88, issue.4, pp.613-638, 2012.
DOI : 10.3368/le.88.4.613

A. Amin, J. Choumert, P. C. Motel, J. Combes, E. N. Kere et al., A spatial econometric approach to spillover effects between protected areas and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, p.6, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00960476

K. S. Andam, P. J. Ferraro, K. R. Sims, A. Healy, and M. B. Holland, Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.22, pp.9996-10001, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0914177107

A. Angelsen, Shifting cultivation and ???deforestation???: A study from Indonesia, World Development, vol.23, issue.10, pp.1713-1729, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0305-750X(95)00070-S

A. Angelsen and D. Kaimowitz, Rethinking the causes of deforestation: Lessons from economic models. The World Bank Research Observer, pp.73-98, 1999.

A. Angelsen and D. Kaimowitz, Agricultural technologies and tropical deforestation, 2001.
DOI : 10.1079/9780851994512.0000

R. A. Arriagada, P. Ferraro, E. Sills, S. Pattanayak, and S. Cordero-sancho, Do Payments for Environmental Services Affect Forest Cover? A Farm-Level Evaluation from Costa Rica, Land Economics, vol.88, issue.2, pp.382-399, 2012.
DOI : 10.3368/le.88.2.382

L. Aukland, P. M. Costa, and S. Brown, A conceptual framework and its application for addressing leakage: the case of avoided deforestation, Climate Policy, vol.77, issue.1, pp.123-136, 2003.
DOI : 10.2307/2845977

P. C. Austin, An Introduction to Propensity Score Methods for Reducing the Effects of Confounding in Observational Studies, Multivariate Behavioral Research, vol.110, issue.3, pp.399-424, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.03.018

K. Baylis, J. Honey-rosés, J. Börner, E. Corbera, D. Ezzine-de-blas et al., Mainstreaming Impact Evaluation in Nature Conservation, Conservation Letters, vol.1, issue.19, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/conl.12180

D. B. Bray, L. Merino-pérez, P. Negreros-castillo, G. Segura-warnholtz, J. M. Torres-rojo et al., Mexico's Community-Managed Forests as a Global Model for Sustainable Landscapes, Conservation Biology, vol.6, issue.1, pp.672-677, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/089419202317174002

G. Canavire-bacarreza and M. M. Hanauer, Estimating the Impacts of Bolivia???s Protected Areas on Poverty, World Development, vol.41, pp.265-285, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.06.011

K. M. Chomitz, Baseline, leakage and measurement issues: how do forestry and energy projects compare? Climate Policy, pp.35-49, 2002.

S. Costedoat, E. Corbera, D. Ezzine-de-blas, J. Honey-rosés, K. Baylis et al., How effective are biodiversity conservation payments in Mexico? PloS one, p.119881, 2015.

P. Delacote, E. J. Robinson, and S. Roussel, Deforestation, leakage and avoided deforestation policies: A spatial analysis, Resource and Energy Economics, vol.45, pp.2015-2021, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.reseneeco.2016.06.006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01350831

P. J. Ferraro, Counterfactual thinking and impact evaluation in environmental policy, New Directions for Evaluation, vol.20, issue.1, pp.75-84, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/ev.297

P. J. Ferraro and M. M. Hanauer, Advances in Measuring the Environmental and Social Impacts of Environmental Programs, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol.39, issue.1, pp.495-517, 2014.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-environ-101813-013230

P. J. Ferraro and A. Kiss, Direct payments to conserve biodiversity, Himalayan Journal of Sciences, vol.1, issue.2, pp.2981718-1719, 2002.
DOI : 10.3126/hjs.v1i2.200

P. J. Ferraro and S. K. Pattanayak, Money for Nothing? A Call for Empirical Evaluation of Biodiversity Conservation Investments, PLoS Biology, vol.20, issue.4, 2006.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040105

L. R. García-amado, M. Ruiz-pérez, R. Escutia, F. Barrasa-garcía, S. et al., Efficiency of Payments for Environmental Services: Equity and additionality in a case study from a Biosphere Reserve in Chiapas, Mexico, Ecological Economics, vol.70, issue.12, pp.702361-2368, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.07.016

R. Geres and A. Michaelowa, A qualitative method to consider leakage effects from CDM and JI projects, Energy Policy, vol.30, issue.6, pp.461-463, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0301-4215(01)00113-6

K. Hirano and G. W. Imbens, Estimation of causal effects using propensity score weighting: An application to data on right heart catheterization, Health Services and Outcomes research methodology, pp.259-278, 2001.

S. Jayachandran, Liquidity Constraints and Deforestation: The Limitations of Payments for Ecosystem Services, American Economic Review, vol.103, issue.3, pp.309-322, 2013.
DOI : 10.1257/aer.103.3.309

L. Joppa and A. Pfaff, Reassessing the forest impacts of protection, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.15, issue.1, pp.135-149, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05162.x

L. N. Joppa and A. Pfaff, High and Far: Biases in the Location of Protected Areas, PLoS ONE, vol.4, issue.12, p.8273, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0008273.s002

A. Karsenty, Combining conservation incentives with investment. Perspective, Environmental Policies, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00723556

A. Karsenty and D. Ezzine-de-blas, Du mésusage des métaphores -les paiements pour services environnementaux sont-ils des instruments de marchandisation de la nature, 2014.
DOI : 10.3917/rdm.042.0261

URL : http://agritrop.cirad.fr/571627/

P. Halpern and P. L. Lascoumes, editor, L'instrumentation de l'action publique -Controverses, résistances, effets, pp.161-189

J. K. Lunceford and M. Davidian, Stratification and weighting via the propensity score in estimation of causal treatment effects: a comparative study, Statistics in Medicine, vol.23, issue.19, pp.2937-2960, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.7231

M. Persson, U. Alpízar, and F. , Conditional Cash Transfers and Payments for Environmental Services???A Conceptual Framework for Explaining and Judging Differences in Outcomes, World Development, vol.43, pp.124-137, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.10.006

D. A. Miteva, S. K. Pattanayak, and P. J. Ferraro, Evaluation of biodiversity policy instruments: what works and what doesn't?, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, vol.28, issue.1, pp.69-92, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/oxrep/grs009

C. Muñoz-piña, A. Guevara, J. M. Torres, and J. Braña, Paying for the hydrological services of Mexico's forests: Analysis, negotiations and results, Ecological Economics, vol.65, issue.4, pp.725-736, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.07.031

R. Muradian, M. Arsel, L. Pellegrini, F. Adaman, B. Aguilar et al., Payments for ecosystem services and the fatal attraction of win-win solutions, Conservation Letters, vol.69, issue.20, pp.274-279
DOI : 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00309.x

B. C. Murray, B. A. Mccarl, L. , and H. , Estimating Leakage from Forest Carbon Sequestration Programs, Land Economics, vol.80, issue.1, pp.109-124, 2004.
DOI : 10.2307/3147147

URL : http://hdl.handle.net/10419/70427

S. K. Pattanayak, S. Wunder, and P. J. Ferraro, Show Me the Money: Do Payments Supply Environmental Services in Developing Countries?, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, vol.4, issue.2, pp.254-274, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/reep/req006

A. Pfaff, J. Robalino, G. Sanchez-azofeifa, K. Andam, and P. Ferraro, Park Location Affects Forest Protection: Land Characteristics Cause Differences in Park Impacts across Costa Rica, The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, vol.9, issue.2, pp.1-24, 2009.
DOI : 10.2202/1935-1682.1990

R. Pirard, R. Billé, and T. Sembrés, Questioning the theory of payments for ecosystem services in light of emerging experience and plausible developments, 2010.

M. Ravallion, Evaluating anti-poverty programs. Handbook of development economics, pp.3787-3846, 2007.
DOI : 10.1596/1813-9450-3625

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

J. Robalino and A. Pfaff, Ecopayments and Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Nationwide Analysis of PSA's Initial Years, Land Economics, vol.89, issue.3, pp.432-448, 2013.
DOI : 10.3368/le.89.3.432

J. M. Robins, A. Rotnitzky, and L. P. Zhao, Analysis of Semiparametric Regression Models for Repeated Outcomes in the Presence of Missing Data, Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol.11, issue.427, pp.90106-121, 1995.
DOI : 10.1080/01621459.1987.10478441

R. Schwarze, J. O. Niles, and J. Olander, Understanding and managing leakage in forest-based greenhouse-gas-mitigation projects, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.360, issue.1797, pp.3601685-1703, 1797.
DOI : 10.1098/rsta.2002.1040

K. R. Sims, Conservation and development: Evidence from Thai protected areas, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol.60, issue.2, pp.94-114, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jeem.2010.05.003

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

S. Castillo, C. Ramirez-reyes, and P. Yanez-pagans, Improving environmental and social targeting through adaptive management in Mexico's payments for hydrological services program, Conservation Biology, vol.28, issue.5, pp.1151-1159, 2014.

B. Sohngen and S. Brown, Measuring leakage from carbon projects in open economies: a stop timber harvesting project in Bolivia as a case study, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol.34, issue.4, pp.829-839, 2004.
DOI : 10.1139/x03-249

T. Unep and F. Group, Payments for ecosystem services: Getting started, 2008.

S. Vansteelandt and R. Daniel, On regression adjustment for the propensity score, Statistics in Medicine, vol.31, issue.23, pp.4053-4072, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.6207

R. T. Watson, I. R. Noble, B. Bolin, N. Ravindranath, D. J. Verardo et al., Land use, land-use change and forestry: a special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000.

J. Wu, Slippage Effects of the Conservation Reserve Program, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol.82, issue.4, pp.979-992, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/0002-9092.00096

J. Wu, D. Zilberman, and B. A. Babcock, Environmental and Distributional Impacts of Conservation Targeting Strategies, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol.41, issue.3, pp.333-350, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/jeem.2000.1146

S. Wunder, How should we deal with leakage? In Moving ahead with REDD: issues , options and implications, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), 2008.

S. Wunder, Revisiting the concept of payments for environmental services, Ecological Economics, vol.117, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.08.016