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Malitia temporis. Francisco de Holanda face à la censure inquisitoriale. Textes et images

Abstract : In Almeirim in 1551, Francisco de Holanda (1517-1584) painted the image of the Creation of Adam from the Dust of the Ground at the beginning of his chronicle of the world in images, De Aetatibus Mundi Imagines (f. 7v). He adopts the reproved iconography of the three-headed Trinity, which had enjoyed a particular favor in the Iberian Peninsula since the 12th century at least. Later, Holanda erased with broad white strokes the lateral faces of this image of Trinity in the Creation, no doubt at the demand of the three Dominican theologians to whom he submitted his images. He erased them against his will, in a manner that allows one to guess what lies underneath. More than 25 years later in 1576, Francisco de Holanda once again had to bow to the demands of the censor, this time Frei Bartolomeu Ferreira, so that his two treatises Da Fabrica que falece à Cidade de Lisboa and Da Ciência do Desenho (1571) could be passed around and read. In the same fashion, he complied, correcting the incriminated passages, but the original reproved texts on the « divine » nature of painting can be seen under the white erasure. These two episodes, concerning in one case his images and in the other his theoretical texts, are the only two indications known today of the harassment that the censorship of the Inquisition inflicted upon Holanda. But there were most certainly other ones, concerning notably his treatise on painting Da Pintura Antigua, not published after its completion in 1548. In the 16th century when the Inquisition became omnipotent and ubiquitous in Portugal, Francisco de Holanda was unable to find his place and his career was blocked. His treatises remained manuscripts and his books of drawings were not engraved. Holanda denounces in a a veiled manner this scourge of censorship, this Malitia Temporis, this « malice of the time », in two enigmatic images at the end of the two censored works.  
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 30, 2015 - 10:56:10 AM
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Sylvie Deswarte-Rosa. Malitia temporis. Francisco de Holanda face à la censure inquisitoriale. Textes et images. Pedro Flor. Pensar História da Arte. Estudos de Homenagem a José-Augusto França, Esfera do Caos Editores, pp.113-126, 2016. ⟨halshs-01181556⟩



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