D. African and . Bank, The Africa Infrastructure AIDI Development Index (AIDI), AfDB Economic Brief, 2013.

B. Baltagi, Econometrics Analysis of Panel Data, 2005.

D. Bräutigam and X. Y. Tang, African Shenzhen: China's special economic zones in Africa, The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol.49, issue.01, pp.27-54, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s10368-003-0003-4

K. Carey, S. Gupta, and U. Jacoby, Sub-Saharan Africa: Forging New Trade Links with Asia, 2007.

C. Carrère, African Regional Agreements: Impact on Trade with or without Currency Unions, Journal of African Economies, vol.13, issue.2, pp.199-239, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/jae/ejh010

C. Carrère, Revisiting the effects of regional trade agreements on trade flows with proper specification of the gravity model, European Economic Review, vol.50, issue.2, pp.223-247, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2004.06.001

G. Gaulier and S. Zignago, BACI: International Trade Database at the Product-Level (the 1994-2007 Version), SSRN Electronic Journal, 2010.
DOI : 10.2139/ssrn.1994500

T. Gebre-egziabher, The Developmental Impact of Asian Drivers on Ethiopia with Emphasis on Small-scale Footwear Producers, World Economy, vol.37, issue.11, pp.1613-1637, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1467-9701.2009.01252.x

P. Guillaumont and S. G. Jeanneney, Exchange Rate Policies and the Social Consequences of Adjustment in Africa, Economic Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp.13-24, 1991.

G. Jeanneney, S. , and P. Hua, How does real exchange rate influence labour productivity in China?, China Economic Review, vol.22, issue.4, pp.628-645, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chieco.2010.04.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00666806

G. Jeanneney, S. , and P. Hua, China's African Financial Engagement, Real Exchange Rates and Trade between China and Africa, Journal of African Economies, vol.24, issue.1, pp.1-25, 2015.
DOI : 10.1093/jae/eju020

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01150612

J. A. Hausman and W. E. Taylor, Panel Data and Unobservable Individual Effects, Econometrica, vol.49, issue.6, pp.1377-1398, 1981.
DOI : 10.2307/1911406

URL : http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/1721.1/64044/1/paneldataunobser00haus.pdf

C. Hsiao, Analysis of Panel Data, 2003.

K. S. Im, M. H. Pesaran, and Y. Shin, Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels, Journal of Econometrics, vol.115, issue.1, pp.53-74, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-4076(03)00092-7

D. Kaufmann, A. Kraay, and M. Mastruzzi, The Worldwide Governance Indicators: A Summary of Methodology, Data and Analytical Issues, 2010.

H. Leibenstein, Economic Backwardness and Economic Growth, 1957.

H. Leibenstein, Allocative Efficiency versus X-Efficiency, American Economic Review, vol.56, issue.3, pp.392-415, 1966.

A. Levin, C. F. Lin, and C. J. Chu, Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties, Journal of Econometrics, vol.108, issue.1, pp.1-24, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-4076(01)00098-7

J. De-melo and A. Portugal-perez, Preferential Market Access Design: Evidence and Lessons from African Apparel Exports to the US and to the E.U, 2012.
DOI : 10.1596/1813-9450-6357

O. Redi, From ashes, an industry reborn, Fortune, 2009.

D. Rodrik, The Real Exchange Rate and Economic Growth, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol.2008, issue.2, pp.365-412, 2008.
DOI : 10.1353/eca.0.0020

T. Sonobe, J. E. Akoten, and K. Otsuka, An Exploration into the Successful Development of the Leather-Shoe Industry in Ethiopia, Review of Development Economics, vol.12, issue.4, pp.719-736, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1467-9361.2009.00526.x