Évolution des sociétés magdaléniennes dans le sud-ouest de la France entre 18000 et 14000 cal BP : recomposition des environnements, reconfiguration des équipements.

Abstract : In Southwestern France, between 18 500 and 14 000 cal. BP, socio-economic changes are evident in several spheres of Magdalenian hunter-gatherer activity. The array of bone and stone tools undergo a transformation. Targeted prey species, although still dominated by ungulates, also show an evolution. This period was marked by significant climatic and environmental changes that can be correlated with cultural developments based on a calibrated chronology. Around 18 500 cal. BP, the advent of the Middle Magdalenian coincides with the Heinrich 1 climatic event. This period is marked by a strong development of reindeer antler industry, in particular the production of a variety of projectile points, which are often decorated. Lithic procurement is more standardized with the couple Blade-Bladelet used to fabricate domestic tools and a variety of composite elements integrated into projectile weapons. While certain elements are found across a large geographic area, others are more regionally restricted. The establishment of a veritable network of social interactions is underpinned by an increase in the biomass of prey species, which allowed for demographic expansion. Subsequently, the Upper Magdalenian developed during a period of relative climatic amelioration after Heinrich Event 1 and continued until a rupture in the equilibrium of ecological communities around 14 000 cal. BP. This change is expressed through different elements. One can recognize new patterns in bone and lithic hunting weaponry and a simplification of domestic production. These changes in procurement are accompanied by the maintenance of social networks across large regions, while at the same time there appears to be a geographic contraction of groups within regional procurement networks. Ungulates remain the primary prey species but are supplemented by small game. While it is important to evaluate driving forces behind technological and socioeconomic processes through time, one must also take in account cultural evolution within each technocomplex. In order to evaluate these internal developments, it is necessary to establish a more precise and well-reasoned radiometric framework and also to integrate studies of bone and lithic technology with those of archaeozoology. This contribution presents the first results of such an undertaking based on a higher-resolution seriation of technological innovations and their implications in hunting activities. The rhythm of change appears to be complex and nonlinear, and it highlights the innovative nature of Magdalenian weaponry. These rapid changes, with respect to the Upper Paleolithic as a whole, provide insight into the impact of social interactions as cultural stimulation, as well as how resource availability and human demography functioned as factors of change.
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Mathieu Langlais, Véronique Laroulandie, Jean-Marc Pétillon, Jean-Baptiste Mallye, Sandrine Costamagno. Évolution des sociétés magdaléniennes dans le sud-ouest de la France entre 18000 et 14000 cal BP : recomposition des environnements, reconfiguration des équipements.. 27e Congrès préhistorique de France, session F : deuxième moitié et fin du Paléolithique supérieur, 2010, Bordeaux / Les Eyzies, France. pp.417-430. ⟨halshs-00980982⟩

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