Le concept de cluster est-il soluble dans le tourisme ?

Abstract : The concept of clusters comes from research in industrial economy and spatial economics. First developed by Alfred Marshall, it was later applied in central Italy by G. Beccatini. It then served as a model for many industrial development policies in Europe and North America. Today the term appears in literature on tourism, and public policymakers use it in their policies. In this report, the authors will question how relevant it is to transfer this term from industrial economics to tourism economics. They will propose three areas where the concept could be further developed and adjusted to tourism. First, tourists participate in producing the tourism experience, which means that they must be at least partially integrated into the network of actors who make up the cluster. Second, the issue of organized and geographical proximities is more complex than in an industrial cluster. In particular, the superposition of international and local networks, strong public-sector involvement, and extreme economic segmentation introduce a number of discontinuities that discourage actors from working together. Third, the different ways that tourism activities fit into one another forces us to consider different types of clusters, depending on whether a location was created for tourism (centre or resort) or whether tourists took a great interest in it at some point (tourist town). This conceptual reflection, a dialogue between management and geographical sciences, aims to develop effective tools for analyzing the complexity of touristic territories.
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Cécile Clergeau, Philippe Violier. Le concept de cluster est-il soluble dans le tourisme ?. 1ère Conférence Intercontinentale d'Intelligence Territoriale "Interdisciplinarité dans l'aménagement et développement des territoires", Oct 2011, Gatineau, Canada. pp.17. ⟨halshs-00960976⟩

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