F. Amblard, P. Bommel, and J. Rouchier, Assessment and Validation of multi-agents Models, pp.93-114, 2007.

R. Axelrod, R. Conte, R. Hegselmann, and P. Terna, Advancing the Art of Simulation in the Social Sciences Simulating Social Phenomena, Handbook of Research on Nature Inspired Computing for Economy and Management, pp.21-40, 1997.

R. L. Axtell, Why agents? On the varied motivations for agent computing in the social sciences, Proceedings of the workshop on agent simulation: Applications , models, and tools, pp.3-24, 2000.

M. A. Bedau, Philosophical content and method of Artificial Life The Digital Phoenix: How computers are changing philosophy, pp.135-152, 1998.

T. Colburn, The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information, Methodology of Computer Science, pp.318-326, 2004.

T. Colburn and G. Shute, Abstraction in Computer Science, Minds and Machines, vol.31, issue.9, pp.169-184, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s11023-007-9061-7

R. Conte, The necessity of intelligent agents in social simulation, Advances in Complex Systems, vol.03, issue.01n04, pp.19-38, 2000.
DOI : 10.1142/S0219525900000030

G. Booch, J. Rumbaugh, and I. Jacobson, The Unified Modeling Language User Guide, 1998.

B. J. Copeland, Computation, The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information, pp.3-17, 2004.

N. David, H. Caldas, and H. Coelho, Epistemological Perspectives on Simulation ? III, special section in the, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol.13, issue.14, 2010.

N. David, J. S. Sichman, and H. Coelho, The Logic of the Method of Agent-Based Simulation in the Social Sciences: Empirical and Intentional Adequacy of Computer Programs, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol.82, issue.4, 2005.

R. Davis and D. B. Lenat, Knowledge-Based Systems in Artificial Intelligence, 1982.

P. Demeulenaere, Analytical Sociology and Social Mechanisms
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511921315

D. Paolo and E. A. , Simulation Models as Opaque Thought Experiments, Artificial Life VII, Proc. of the 7 th Intern. Conf. on Artificial Life, pp.497-506, 2000.

M. R. Dietrich, Monte Carlo experiments and the defense of diffusion models in molecular population genetics, Biology and Philosophy, vol.245, issue.3, pp.339-356, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00128786

B. Edmonds, TRUTH-INDICATIVE, Worldviews, Science and Us, pp.65-80, 2007.
DOI : 10.1142/9789812707420_0005

B. Edmonds and S. Moss, The Importance of Representing Cognitive Processes in Multi-agent Models, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol.2130, pp.759-766, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-44668-0_106

B. Edmonds and S. Moss, From KISS to KIDS ??? An ???Anti-simplistic??? Modelling Approach, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-32243-6_11

J. Ferber, Multi-agent Systems: an Introduction to Distributed Artificial Intelligence, 1999.

J. H. Fetzer, Philosophy and Computer Science, pp.253-273, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-010-0973-7_10

J. W. Forrester, Principles of Systems, 1968.

E. F. Keller, Making Sense of Life. Explaining Biological Development with Models , Metaphors and Machines, 2002.

E. F. Keller, Models, Simulation and 'Computer Experiments', The Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation, pp.198-215, 2002.

M. Friedman, Essays on Positive Economics, 1953.

P. Galison, Computer Simulations and the Trading Zone The Disunity of Science, pp.118-157, 1996.

P. Galison, Image and Logic, 1997.

N. Gilbert, Computational Social Science ? Agent-based Social simulation, pp.115-133, 2007.

N. Goodman, Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols, 1968.

N. Goodman, The Structure of Appearance, 1951.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-010-1184-6

N. Goodman, Routes of Reference, Critical Inquiry, vol.8, issue.1, pp.121-132, 1981.
DOI : 10.1086/448143

F. Guala, Experimental Localism and External Validity, Philosophy of Science, vol.70, issue.5, pp.1195-1205, 2003.
DOI : 10.1086/377400

URL : http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/1073/

I. Hacking, Representing and Intervening, 1983.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511814563

S. Hartmann, The world as a process Modelling and simulation in the social sciences from the philosophy of science point of view, pp.77-100, 1996.

D. R. Hill, Verification and Validation of Ecosystem Simulation Models, Summer Simulation Conference, pp.176-182, 1995.

P. Humphreys, Computer Simulations, PSA (Philosophy of Science Association, pp.497-506, 1990.

G. Klir and D. Elias, Architecture of Systems Problems Solving, 1985.

T. A. Kohler and S. E. Van-der-leeuw, The Model-Based Archaeology of Socionatural Systems, 2007.

G. Küppers, J. Lenhard, and T. Shinn, Computer Simulation: Practice, Epistemology, and Social Dynamics, Simulations: Pragmatic Construction of Reality, pp.3-22, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/1-4020-5375-4_1

A. Lindenmayer, Mathematical models for cellular interactions in development I. Filaments with one-sided inputs, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.18, issue.3, pp.280-299, 1968.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-5193(68)90079-9

A. Lindenmayer, Mathematical models for cellular interactions in development II. Simple and branching filaments with two-sided inputs, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.18, issue.3, pp.18-300, 1968.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-5193(68)90080-5

P. Livet, Towards an Epistemology of Multi-agent Simulations in social Sciences, pp.169-193, 2007.

U. Mäki, Models are experiments, experiments are models, Journal of Economic Methodology, vol.3, issue.2, pp.303-315, 2005.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511493317.006

M. Michalewicz, Plants to ecosystems Advances in Computational Life Sciences, 1997.

M. S. Morgan, Experiments versus models: New phenomena, inference and surprise, Journal of Economic Methodology, vol.62, issue.2, pp.317-329, 2005.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511493317.006

M. C. Morrison, The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Experiment, pp.514-518, 1998.

M. C. Morrison, Models, measurement and computer simulation: the changing face of experimentation, Philosophical Studies, vol.70, issue.2, pp.33-57, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s11098-008-9317-y

S. Moss and B. Edmonds, Sociology and Simulation: Statistical and Qualitative Cross???Validation, American Journal of Sociology, vol.110, issue.4, pp.1095-1131, 2005.
DOI : 10.1086/427320

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

M. Neumann, Emergence as an Explanatory Principle in Artificial Societies, Squazzoni, pp.69-88, 2009.

. J. Neumann-(-von-), The general and logical Theory of Automata, A. H. Taub Collected Works of von Neumann, pp.288-328, 1948.

T. I. Ören, Toward the Body of Knowledge of Modeling and Simulation, Interservice/ Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference, pp.1-19, 2005.

P. Ormerod and B. Rosewell, Validation and Verification of Agent-Based Models in the Social Sciences, pp.130-140, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.physa.2004.08.006

S. L. Peck, Simulation as experiment: a philosophical reassessment for biological modeling, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.19, issue.10, pp.530-534, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2004.07.019

I. Peschard, Is Simulation an Epistemic Substitute for Experimentation?, Proc. of the International Colloquium on Computer Simulations, 2010.

D. Phan and F. Varenne, Agent-Based Models and Simulations in Economics and Social Sciences: From Conceptual Exploration to Distinct Ways of Experimenting, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol.13, issue.1, 2010.
DOI : 10.18564/jasss.1532

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00554700

W. V. Quine, The Roots of Reference, 1974.

J. Reiss, A Plea for (Good) Simulations: Nudging Economics Toward an Experimental Science, Simulation & Gaming, vol.42, issue.2, pp.243-264, 2011.
DOI : 10.1177/1046878110393941

F. Rohrlich, Computer Simulation in the Physical Sciences, PSA (Philosophy of Science Association, pp.507-518, 1990.

L. W. Schruben, Establishing the credibility of simulations, Simulation, pp.101-105, 1980.

M. Stöckler, On Modeling and Simulations as Instruments for the Study of Complex Systems, Science at Century's End, Proc. of the Pittsburgh/Konstanz Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science, pp.355-373, 1997.

L. Tesfatsion, Agent-Based Computational Economics: Growing Economies From the Bottom Up, Artificial Life, vol.84, issue.1, pp.55-82, 2002.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1013814511151

F. Varenne, What does a computer simulation prove, Proc. of the 13th European Simulation Symposium, pp.549-554, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00004125

F. Varenne, La simulation conçue comme expérience concrète, Le statut épistémologique de la simulation, pp.299-313, 2003.

F. Varenne, Du modèle à la simulation informatique, 2007.

F. Varenne, J. J. Kupiec, G. Lecointre, M. Silberstein, and F. Varenne, Modèles et simulations : pluriformaliser , simuler, remathématiser, Modèles Simulations Systèmes Modéliser & simuler. Épistémologies et pratiques de la modélisation et de la simulation, pp.153-180, 2008.

F. Varenne, Qu'est-ce que l'informatique ?, 2009.

F. Varenne, Models and Simulations in the Historical Emergence of the Science of Complexity, From System Complexity to Emergent Properties, pp.3-21, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-02199-2_1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00711624

F. Varenne, Framework for Models & Simulations with Agents in regard to Agent Simulations in Social Sciences: Emulation and Simulation, 2010.

E. Winsberg, Sanctioning Models: The Epistemology of Simulation, Science in Context, vol.276, issue.02, pp.275-292, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.228.4698.403

E. Winsberg, A Tale of Two Methods, Synthese, pp.575-592, 2009.

L. Yilmaz, T. Oren, and N. G. Aghaee, Intelligent agents, simulation, and gaming, Simulation & Gaming, vol.37, issue.3, pp.339-349, 2006.
DOI : 10.1177/1046878106289089

B. P. Zeigler, H. Praehofer, K. Tag, and G. , Theory of Modeling and Simulation. Integrating Discrete Event and Continuous Complex Dynamic Systems, 1976.

B. P. Zeigler, A. Muzy, and L. Yilmaz, Artificial Intelligence in Modeling and Simulation, Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, pp.344-368, 2009.

J. Hervé-le-bras and . Wieviorka, National Debates on Race Statistics: towards an International Comparison, 2012.

F. Jullien and L. , Ou comment penser l'altérité, FMSH-WP, 2012.

I. Rabinovich, The Web of Relationship, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00677261

B. Maggi, Interpréter l'agir : un défi théorique, FMSH- WP, 2012.

P. Salama, Chine ? Brésil : industrialisation et « désindustrialisation précoce, 2012.

G. Fabre and &. Grumbach, The World upside down,China's R&D and inno- vation strategy, FMSH- WP, 2012.

Y. Joy and . Zhang, The De-nationalization and Re-nationalization of the Life Sciences in China: A Cosmopolitan Practicality, 2012.

J. P. Sullivan, From Drug Wars to Criminal Insurgency: Mexican Cartels, Criminal Enclaves and Criminal Insurgency in Mexico and Central America. Implications for Global Security, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00694083

M. Fleurbaey, Economics is not what you think: A defense of the economic approach to taxation , FMSH-WP, 2012.

M. Fleurbaey, The facets of exploitation, Journal of Theoretical Politics, vol.75, issue.4, 2012.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511611964.010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00702100

J. Sapir, Pour l'Euro, l'heure du bilan a sonné : Quinze leçons et six conclusions, 2012.

R. De-koninck and &. Rousseau, Pourquoi et jusqu'o?? la fuite en avant des agricultures sud-est asiatiques???, Espace g??ographique, vol.42, issue.2, 2012.
DOI : 10.3917/eg.422.0143

J. Sapir, Inflation monétaire ou inflation structurelle ? Un modèle hétérodoxe bi-sectoriel , FMSH-WP, 2012.

F. Manjali, The 'Social' and the 'Cognitive' in Language. A Reading of Saussure, and Beyond, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00724036

M. Wieviorka, Du concept de sujet à celui de subjectivation/dé-subjectivation , FMSH- WP, 2012.
DOI : 10.1590/s0102-69922015000100004

URL : http://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-69922015000100004

N. Fraser and F. , Capitalism , and the Cunning of History: An Introduction, FMSH- WP, 2012.

N. Fraser, Can society be commodities all the way down? Polanyian reflections on capitalist crisis, FMSH-WP, 2012.

M. Fleurbaey and &. Zuber, Climate policies deserve a negative discount rate, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01048583

R. Waldinger, La politique au-delà des frontières : la sociologie politique de l'émigration, FMSH- WP, 2012.

J. Sabouret, Mars 2012 : Un an après Fukushima, le Japon entre catastrophes et rési- lience, FMSH-PP, 2012.

A. K. Mehra, Public Security and the Indian State, FMSH- PP, 2012.

T. Beichelt, La nouvelle politique européenne de l'Allemagne : L'émergence de modèles de légitimité en concurrence ?, FMSH- PP, 2012.

A. Sérgio and A. Guimarães, Race, colour, and skin colour in Brazil, 2012.

I. Brena, Les soins médicaux portés aux patients âgés incapables de s'autogérer, FMSH- PP, 2013.

T. Magioglou, Europe ou refaire le « monde » ? Un commentaire sur l'ouvrage : « Refaire l'Europe avec Jürgen Habermas, 2013.

S. Sadouni, Cosmopolitisme et prédication islamique transfrontalière : le cas de Maulana Abdul Aleem Siddiqui, FMSH- PP, 2013.

A. Nuselovici, Étudier l'exil, FMSH-PP, 2013.