C. Treadwell and A. Talib, This article was written with the support of the Marie Curie Actions of the European Commission Notes 1 G. Makdisi, '?abaq?t-Biography: Law and Orthodoxy in Classical IslamThe Formation of the Sunn? Schools of Law The Formation of Islamic Law The History of an Islamic School of Law. The Early Spread of Hanafism, Islamic Studies C. Melchert, vol.32, issue.379, pp.390-391, 1993.

J. Schacht, 55. Cf. Makdisi, '?abaq?t-Biography', 390?1; Melchert, The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law N. Hurvitz, 'Schools of Law and Historical Context: Re-examining the Formation of the ?anbal? MadhhabFrom Regional to Personal Schools of Law? A Reevaluation, Islamic Law and Society, vol.35, issue.7, pp.42-48, 1983.

S. Judd, The Umayyad Madhhab? The Islamic School of Law. Evolution, Devolution, and Progress (Cambridge, 2005), 11, 22. 5 On the definition of 'identity', conceived in terms of boundaries between cultural models, see Philip Wood's introduction to the present volume. 6 Ibn al-Muqaffa?, Ris?la f? al-?a??ba, in C. Pellat, Ibn al-Muqaffa? (mort vers 140/757) 'conseilleur' du calife On this epistle, see, amongst other references The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, J. Schacht, p.102, 1950.

S. D. Goitein, A Turning Point in the History of the Muslim State (Apropos of the Kit?b al-?a??ba of Ibn al-Muqaffa?)', in Studies in Islamic History and Institutions (Leiden, 1968); A. K. S. Lambton, State and Government in Medieval Islam. An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Political Theory: The Jurists, p.51, 1981.

J. E. Lowry, The First Islamic Legal Theory: Ibn al-Muqaffa? on Interpretation, Authority, and the Structure of the Law, Ibn al-Muqaffa?, Ris?la f? al-?a??ba, pp.25-40, 2008.

M. Sharon, The Social and Military Aspects of The ?Abb?sid Revolution (Jerusalem, 1990), 250f.; P. Crone The Islamic World From Classical to Modern Times (Princeton, 1989), esp. 100?1. 11 Ibn al-Muqaffa?, Ris?la f? al-?a??ba See also Lambton, State and Government, 53; P. Crone and M. Hinds, God's Caliph. Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam (Cambridge, 1986), 86; Lowry, 'The First Islamic Legal Theory', 36. 12 Y. Dutton, The Origins of Islamic Law. The Qur?an, the Muwa??a? and Madinan ?Amal On M?lik, see J. Schacht, 'M?lik b. Anas', EI2. 13 B. Jokisch, Islamic Imperial Law. Harun-Al-Rashid's Codification ProjectUn espace judiciaire entre public et privé: Audiences de cadis à l'époque ?abb?side ?und Mi?r: Étude de l'administration militaire d'Égypte des débuts de l'Islam Histoire de l'organisation judiciaire en pays d'Islam (Leiden, 1960), 363, 369, 375f. 18 Schacht, Origins, 100; W. B. Hallaq, The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law (Cambridge, 2005), 44f. 19 See al-J??i?, Kit?b al-?ayaw?n, 1:87; on the development of early M?lik? texts, see J. E. Brockopp, Early M?lik? Law. Ibn ?Abd al-Hakam and his Major Compendium of Jurisprudence, Meccan Fiqh before the Classical Schools 497f. 15 S. Bouderbala 267. 16 Wak?? 20 In the early third/ninth century, the q??? Ibr?h?m ibn al-Jarr?? usually chose for each case among the legal views of Ab? ?an?fa, Ab? Y?suf, M?lik ibn Anas, and Ibn Ab? Layl?. Al-Kind? 240f., 578f. 22 J. Schacht, 'Ibn Ab? Layl?', EI2; Tillier, Les cadis d'Iraq, 99. 23 See, e.g., Wak??, Akhb?r al-qu??t M. Tillier, 'Un traité politique du II e /VIII e siècle: L'épître de ?Ubayd All?h b, pp.42-3642, 1983.

. Kennedy, Central Government and Provincial Elites', 37; M. Tillier

S. Kennedy, Central Government', 30. 31 Tillier, Les cadis d'Iraq, 101?1. 32 Wak??, Akhb?r al-qu??t, 2:57. 33 B. Johansen, 'Wahrheit und Geltungsanspruch: Zur Begründung und Begrenzung der Autorität des Qadi-Urteils im islamischen Recht', in O. Capitani et al., La Giustizia nell' alto medioevo (secoli IX?XI) (Spoleto, 1997), 994; Tillier, Les cadis d'Iraq, 104. 34 Crone and Hinds, God's Caliph The History, 40f. 36 Tsafrir, The History, 40; Tillier, Les cadis d'Iraq, 148f. 37 Hallaq, The Origins and Evolution, 106?7. Cf. Schacht, Origins, 231. 38 The reason of this bad reputation is unclear. One would expect that Iraqi scholars had a bad reputation in Syria because of their opposition to the Umayyads. Ibn al- Muqaffa?'s text suggests, however, that these scholars had suffered from a bad reputation in Iraq itself because of their collaboration with unjust rulers, Histoire des cadis égyptiens his Ris?la, Ibn al- Muqaffa? encourages the caliph to rely more on Iraqi people; M. Q. Zaman, Religion and Politics under the Early ?Abb?sids: The Emergence of the Proto-Sunn? Elite, pp.80-82, 1997.

. Schacht, The Origins of Islamic Law, 31f. 42 Tsafrir, The History, 40?1; Tillier, Les cadis d'Iraq, 151f. 43 Tsafrir, The History, Origins, pp.61-86

S. W. Madelung, The Early Murji?a in Khur?s?n and Transoxania and the Spread of ?anafism', Der Islam, 32?9. 45 He was suspected of supporting the Sh??? rebel Mu?ammad ibn ?Abd All?h, p.59, 1982.

. Mizz?, Siyar a?l?m al-nubal??, Akhb?r al-qu??t, vol.11, issue.16, pp.372-377, 1980.

. Hennigan, The Birth of a Legal Institution: The Formation of the Waqf in Third-Century A.H. ?anaf? Legal Discourse, 2004.

M. Tillier, Legal Knowledge and Local Practices under the Early ??Abb??sids, History and Identity in the Eastern Mediterranean, pp.2013-187
DOI : 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199915408.003.0010

. Al-qalqashand?, On this q???, see Tyan, Histoire de l'organisation judiciaire, 156. 72 Al-Kind?, Akhb?r qu??t Mi?r 73 On the ?anaf? position, see al-?a??w?, Ikhtil?f al-fuqah?? (Islamabad, 1971), 169; al-Sarakhs?, al-Mabs?? (Beirut, 1406/1986), 9:102. On the M?lik? position, see Sa?n?n, al-Mudawwana l-kubr? (Beirut, n.d.), 6:214; Ibn Far??n 74 Al-?a??w?, Ikhtil?f al-fuqah??, 158. 75 Tsafrir, The History, 36; Tillier, Les cadis d'Iraq, 179. 76 Tsafrir, The History, 24; Tillier, Les cadis d'Iraq, See the list of the Egyptian q???s in M. Tillier, 'Introduction', pp.1913-22418, 1995.

A. Al-kind?, G. Qu??t-mi?r, L. Wiet, and . Égypte-arabe-de-la-conquête-arabe-À-la-conquête-ottomane, On Ab? al-Bakhtar?, see Tillier, Les cadis d'Iraq, 154 and indexEgypt as a Province of the Islamic Caliphate', in C. F. Petry, The Cambridge History of Egypt (Cambridge, 1998), 82. 88 Al-Kind?, Akhb?r qu??t Mi?r, 449. 89 Al-Kind?, Akhb?r qu??t Mi?r, 447, 451f. On this q???, see also M. Hinds, 'Mi?na', EI2. The mi?na is the 'inquisition' that al-Ma?m?n organized to impose the dogma of the creation of the Qur?an The History The History, 37; Tillier, Histoire des cadis égyptiens al-Kind?, Histoire des cadis égyptiens, 37. 91 Tsafrir, pp.28-30, 1937.

. Hallaq, From Regional to Personal Schools', 18. 95 Jokisch