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Compositionnalité gestaltiste et construction du sens par instructions dynamiques.

Abstract : The omnipresence of polysemy in natural languages compels us to consider the comprehension of language as a dynamic process during which the meaning of each linguistic unit and the global meaning of the sentence are determined simultaneously. This interactive process, which may be called 'gestalt compositionality', is radically opposed to the classic compositional mechanism advocated by linguistic formalism based on the primacy of syntax. The process considers the syntactic structure of an utterance as the product of meaning construction rather than its source. The comprehension of an utterance is consequently directly based on the interaction between the different basic components of this utterance: lexical units, grammatical markers, positional relations between units and more generally, basic 'constructions' in the sense of Construction Grammar. To model this dynamic process is a major stake for any linguistic school which, like Cognitive Grammar or European Enuntiative Theories, refuses the principles of classic compositionality. In this article a theoretical framework is presented in which the dynamics of interaction obey a principle of Convocation-Evocation: the different basic components of an utterance contribute to building a global representation in an intersubjective space that we call Verbal Scene. Each component helps evoke a new element of the scene being built, but to do so, it first has to first convoke other elements present on the scene or present in the situation of interlocution. The principle of Convocation-Evocation makes up what defines the identity of a linguistic unit. We express this identity in terms of a dynamic instruction of meaning construction and we consider that every unit gives such an instruction. Thus, meaning is really the result of a gestalt compositional process insomuch as the contribution of each basic component depends on the contribution of the other components present in the utterance. We show a first attempt at modelization from French and English examples. We will discuss the special cognitive statuses of these verbal scenes arguing that the specificities of human languages are drawn from this representational function - 'representation' being understood not in the sense usually encountered in cognitive science, but in it's original latin etymom: repraesentare - to make present.
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Gilles Col, Jeanne Aptekman, Stéphanie Girault, Bernard Victorri. Compositionnalité gestaltiste et construction du sens par instructions dynamiques.. CogniTextes, Association française de linguistique cognitive, 2010, 5, pp.1-30. ⟨halshs-00603757⟩

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