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From intellectual cooperation to cultural diplomacy : the Brazilian and Chilean experiences (1918-1946)

Abstract : Before European supremacy was challenged after World War I, exchanges between intellectuals, scientists, and physicians in particular, were already increasing between latin-american countries. This dynamics came to its climax in the 1930's with a growing number of university exchanges, notably between the Southern Cone's countries, but also towards United States. At first these exchanges were launched by scientists and academics, and they were meant to become both a medium and an instrument for countries like Brazil and Chile to develop the tools for cultural diplomacy. Over the course of a decade Brazilian and Chilean governments had indeed become aware that intellectual cooperation was a benefiting to their national propaganda. Thus they decided to get involved into multilateral organizations: the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation and the Pan-american Union. The IICI, prior to the UNESCO, was linked to the League of Nations and mostly European-rooted, when the Pan-american Union was closely dependant on the United States. These two institutions enabled Brazil and Chile to create a national image that they could promote world-wide. This paper intends to show how these two countries built an international identity thanks to two types of networks : informal networks created by the exchanges between Latin American countries and formal networks set up by the IICI and the Pan-american Union. Thus we will first picture these two dynamics dealing with intellectual cooperation, then we will present the structuring process of the multi-faceted Brazilian and Chilean cultural diplomacies, and finally we will mainly focus on the academic exchanges. Thus we may wonder over the course of our presentation who are the actors involved, which countries are the main targets of Brazil's and Chile's cultural policies. Questioning these issues will lead us to define what were the Brazil's and Chile's diplomatic objectives so as to establish where they would stand on the international scene. The transnational character of intellectual cooperation had led us to analyse two specific countries, Brazil and Chile. Our research project - a comparative study - will deal with networks, exchanges and movements of men and ideas. Although these countries were really different, given their geographical dimensions and their political objectives, both Brazilian and Chilean governments aimed at gaining a better international status. It seems therefore interesting to study how those two governments used soft power to support their national interests.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 20, 2012 - 10:33:54 PM
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  • HAL Id : halshs-00601507, version 1


Juliette Dumont. From intellectual cooperation to cultural diplomacy : the Brazilian and Chilean experiences (1918-1946). Does Academic Exchange Matter? Cultural Diplomacy, Scholarly Internationalism, and American Studies since World War II, organized by the Austrian-American Educational Commision (Fulbright), Nov 2011, Vienne, Austria. ⟨halshs-00601507⟩



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