Intercommunalité, transports urbains et pouvoir d'agglomération : Cinq trajectoires urbaines

Abstract : In the last few years, a real impulse has been done in France toward the development of structures of cooperation within local government, resulting from the act of 12 july 1999. In order to meet the needs of urban areas, the act has created a new structure, the communauté d'agglomération, provided with extended competencies in local management and planning, including the organization of public transport services. Due to the success of this new form of cooperation, institutional structure of urban transport has rapidly changed : between 1998 and 2003, 60% of transport authorities have changed their legal status, moving from specialized forms of cooperation toward more integrated structures (the communautés d'agglomération represents 42% of the total in 2003). Basing our reflexion on the histories of five French urban areas (Rennes, Saint-Étienne, Valenciennes, Caen and Saint-Brieuc), we have examined the consequences of these transformations on public transport making-policy. This article depicts a variety of situations concerning the part of public transport in the building of metropolitan governance. In any case, even when intercommunal authorities have decided to keep a separate organization for public transport, network principles tend to weaken faced with the assertion of territorial strategies. This evolution takes various forms : urban transport areas have to adapt to the boundaries of new intercommunal structures, public transport authorities reinforce their technical expertise, transport public debates are more systematically territory-related. However, such a growing concern for territorial and political aspects in the local debates on public transport does not entail integrated practices in the scope of urban mobility. In particular, most of the new communautés d'agglomération did not take the responsability of roads nor parking management (which are optional competencies). This underlines the fact that technical fragmentation of policies takes roots in established practises and representations that the creation of more integrated structures of cooperation is not (yet) sufficient to change.
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Caroline Gallez. Intercommunalité, transports urbains et pouvoir d'agglomération : Cinq trajectoires urbaines. Flux - Cahiers scientifiques internationaux Réseaux et territoires, Metropolis / Université Paris-Est Marne la Vallée 2007, pp.43-61. ⟨halshs-00350571⟩

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