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Stratégies d'exploitation d'un écosystème alpin au Tardiglaciaire. Les chasseurs de marmottes du Vercors

Abstract : One of the specificities of the Vercors mountains (Northern french Alps) is that every inner late-glacial settlement with preserved faunal remains they include are specialised in alpin Marmot (Marmota marmota L.) exploitation: l’Olette (950 m a.s. l.), Les Pierres (1040 m a. s. l.) , Colomb (1050 m a. s. l.), la Passagère (1050 m a. s. l.), Bobache (700 m a. s. l.) and les Freydières (820 m a. s. l.). That activity was uncovered at the beginning of the XXth century by Hippolyte Müller and it has been confirmed by numerous field and faunal works since. However it appears that the lack of thickness of the late glacial sedimentary records at high altitude produced a palimseste of diachronical cultural settlements for most of them (above 700 m a. s. l.). This was demonstrated by compared lithic technology and 14C dates. We thus propose an updated description of these sites. The archeozoological study based on two exclusive series puts forward that the different groups of marmots were marked by unequal preservation of the elements. It also appears that Marmots were subject to extensive butchery, which probably has to do with exportation of carnal matter and fur. Most of the sites correspond with short-term settlements specialized in Marmot refining. That specialised activity fits the paleoenvironmental data, as a strategy specifically link to the exploitation of a high altitude environment situated above the upper limit of the forest along the whole of the Late Glacial. Indeed, as low-altitude settlements show some diachronal stabilities in hunting strategies, we may consider diachronal continuity in alpine Marmot exploitation along the Late Glacial in the Vercors mountains. Marmots certainly underwent specialised hunts taking place at the end of summers and / or at the beginnings of automns. Lastly we will also have a look at the economical relations between high-altitude sectors and low-altitude valleys, as well as the possibility of culturally-based differences in dealing with marmots.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 24, 2021 - 11:09:18 AM
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Gilles Monin, Christophe Griggo, Carine Tomé. Stratégies d'exploitation d'un écosystème alpin au Tardiglaciaire. Les chasseurs de marmottes du Vercors. Environnement et peuplement de la moyenne montagne, du Tardiglaciaire a nos jours, Yannick Miras; Frédéric Surmely, Jun 2003, Pierrefort, France. pp.29-50. ⟨halshs-00112558⟩

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