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Travail, État et dépendances : Quelques aperçus ethnologiques de la circulation monétaire en Ouzbékistan

Abstract : Uzbekistan occupies a very specific position in the general process of globalization, somehow tending to be the pole opposite to the pole represented by China and its present dramatic economic dynamism. Uzbekistan offers a case study of a country remaining almost outside so-called world market. It shows not only a clear political willingness to refuse liberal reforms advised everywhere by international organisations, but also the preservation of state dirigism both in industry and agriculture despite the weak appearances of formal privatisations taking the form of confiscation of riches and resources. The permanence of state hegemony over the economy is allowed by the brutality of post-soviet regime that dominates society by violence, repression, control, lies and the fear that spreads in all social strata.
After having drawn the general frame of Uzbekistan's evolution since the collapse of USSR, the text examines the situation from a more micro-level point of view. The ethnological fieldwork conducted in the sphere of labour concerns young migrants leaving the rural areas to work in Tashkent. Lack of money characterises the rural economy and forces young men in particular (but not only) to migrate to find monetary income. This income is not only requested for subsistence but for the organisation of weddings and other ceremonies. Migrant labour thus does not encourages individual autonomy but, on the contrary, helps reinforcing the dependencies of younger men to their elders, and of women to men. More generally it strengthens the authority in the spheres of family and neighbour communities. I assume that these phenomenons of political coercion and inculcation of national ideology from one hand, and of economical degradation of life conditions, from the other hand, form a process of re-traditionalisation, reinforcement of family ties and repression of individuality.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 3, 2006 - 10:31:02 PM
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Laurent Bazin. Travail, État et dépendances : Quelques aperçus ethnologiques de la circulation monétaire en Ouzbékistan. Colloque "Anthropologues et économiques face à la globalisation", Lille, 16-17 mars 2006, Mar 2006, Villeneuve d'Ascq. ⟨halshs-00111207⟩

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