Accompagner un enfant avec autisme dans la découverte de l'orthographe : l'harmonisation volontaire à visée de tutelle comme modalité d'intervention pédagogique

Abstract : What are the interactional conditions in the context of a dual school learning setting which enable the emergence, development and maintenance of cognitive procedures necessary for the written lexical production for the minimally verbal child with moderate autism we worked with? We distinguished three areas fundamentally embedded into the reality of our educational interventions : joint attention (Schaeffer 1977), interactions (Bruner , 1983, 1987) consistent with the pragmatic approach to exchanges (Bates, 1976 ; Bernicot 2006 ; Dardier, 2004) and word spelling. Our work aimed at differentiating the three areas in order to correlate interactional aspects and the development of the phonographic process. The teaching setting creates a context for communication that places pragmatic, linguistic, and communicative --joint attention , exchange management-- constraints on autistic students' ability to apply cognitive resources, particularly their ability to self-regulate (hypersensoriality and its corollary, dismantling). As we strove to implement guardianship interactions with our student, and reflected on the conditions of their realization, we realized the relevance of speaking of voluntary harmonization aiming at guardianship. Results related to joint attention showed a decrease in both long- term and permanent disengagement. In terms of pragmatic dimension of exchanges, co-construction enabled the child to develop a meta-pragmatic and meta-linguistic discourse. As for the learning itself, we noticed that the child invested himself voluntarily in his spelling learning, resulting in an increased ability to sustain attention during recognition (direct priming) or supported word production (phonogram cards) tasks, and a developing phonographic procedure. We used our knowledge of neuropsychology, cognitive science, and linguistics to set the framework for our research and outline the prospects of an appropriate educational intervention we called voluntary harmonization aiming at guardianship, whose constituent elements we tried to define. The purpose of this approach is to promote learning through scaffolding. It is based on the adoption by an adult sufficiently attentive to the autistic child of an active withdrawal posture, inspired by Laurent Danon-Boileau (2002)'s forward posture, to integrate into his approach the child's inevitably idiosyncratic psychic and cognitive functioning. We believe that although objectively defined, the notion of voluntary harmonization aiming at guardianship requires further research, and may open up new training opportunities for specialized teachers in the context of inclusive education.
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Patrick Binisti. Accompagner un enfant avec autisme dans la découverte de l'orthographe : l'harmonisation volontaire à visée de tutelle comme modalité d'intervention pédagogique. Linguistique. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB131⟩. ⟨tel-01940946⟩

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