Analyse spatiale et temporelle de la variabilité des régimes de précipitations dans le bassin amazonien

Véronique Michot 1
1 LETG - Rennes - Littoral, Environnement, Télédétection, Géomatique
LETG - Littoral, Environnement, Télédétection, Géomatique UMR 6554
Abstract : Precipitations are the main seasonal climate marker between the tropics and largely determine surface hydrolosy as well as many anthropogenic activities. The Amazon Basin is characterized by various regional rainfall patterns, whose spatial and temporal variability is high. Numerous studies have shown that this variability is related to large scale external forcing, such as sea surface temperatures. The analysis of precipitation in this region is generally related to trends or extreme of rainfall. However, the detection of similar years associated with regional sub-regimes and the analysis of their links with a specific ocean-atmosphere configuration has only been fewly addressed until now. The main objective of this thesis is to create a typology of regional precipitation sub-régimes in the Amazon Basin and to link them to ocean-atmosphere areas able to partly explain them. For that purpose data from 205 raingauges in 5 countries of the Amazon Basin were selected and submitted to a series of statistical tests and reconstruction. Outgoing longwave radiation, specific humidity, sea surface temperature, as well as satellite data (TRMM 3B42 version 7) were also used with the aim of improving the understanding of the spatial rainfall variability.Within each of the seven Amazon regions identified in this work, two to four precipitation sub-regimes were detected. Among the twenty six sub-regimes, twenty are associated with specific humidity and sea surface temperature anomalies. The precipitation sub-regimes of the northern half and the westernmost Andes of the Amazon Basin are most closely related to oceanic anomalies. Moreover, as previously described in the literature, reduction or surplus of rain often correspond to El Niño or La Niña phases, but this thesis also highlights the important role of the Atlantic, more specifically the southern part, on the move of the ITZC and on specific humidity. This work also stresses the link between the temporality of ocean events anomalies and rainfall anomalies.The TRMM 3B42 v7 product allows to enhance the analysis of the spatial variability of rainfall at the intra-regional scale of the North region of the Amazon Basin and to relativize the spatial coherence of its precipitation sub-regimes.
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Véronique Michot. Analyse spatiale et temporelle de la variabilité des régimes de précipitations dans le bassin amazonien. Géographie. Université Rennes 2, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017REN20050⟩. ⟨tel-02024577⟩

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