Caciquismes, résistances, violences. Les pedranos et l'Etat mexicain dans le Chiapas postrévolutionnaire.

Abstract : Based on the study of a rich corpus composed of life stories, participant observation made between 2003 and 2010, archives and documents collected in my fieldworks, this thesis explores the relationships of power and multiple domination waving the political life of the municipality of San Pedro Chenalhó, located in the region of the Highlands of Chiapas, in México. The thesis is based on a theoretical framework inspired by Gramsci in which fit together some analyzes borrowed from the sociology of social movements, political anthropology of the State and NGOs, and micro-history. The study in three parts dates back since the 1940s and ends in 2010, to analyze the genesis and transformation of the relations of the pedranos to the Mexican State, by portraits of local political and religious leaders. The political and economic crisis in Chiapas in the early 1990s was expressed in Chenalhó by a double phenomenon of political empowerment and justice: the rebellion of pedranos against cultural caciques first led to the creation of Zapatista autonomous municipality in Polhó in 1996 (analyzed from everyday life and hinged to the “mise en scène” of the Zapatista organization) ; and, consequently, the formation of a vigilant group in the ejido of Los Chorros in 1997. The reactivation of former political, religious or family antagonisms led to a violence “in cascade” throughout 1997. Detailed analysis of the murders and of the Acteal massacre attests to a combination of an “art of war” of pedranos (rumors, accusation of witchcraft, privatization of community spaces, arming of civilians, military uniforms costumes) and a sacrificial ritual of the Mexican State to restore a profound threatened order. Then the Acteal case and its interpretative controversies (intercommunal conflict/low intensity war, slaughter/battle), and reconciliation mechanisms with mitigated results illustrate how re-appropriation of the past acts as drivers of new collective actions by political and religious actors who seize a posteriori such historical, moral and symbolic ruptures. This thesis is an attempt to understand some of the challenges of contemporary Mexico, including political violence as constitutive of a modern Mexican Centaur crossed by recurrent crisis.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 23, 2015 - 12:59:53 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01166862, version 1

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Sabrina Melenotte. Caciquismes, résistances, violences. Les pedranos et l'Etat mexicain dans le Chiapas postrévolutionnaire.. Anthropologie sociale et ethnologie. Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01166862⟩

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