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Sortir des énergies fossiles : les atouts du solaire dans les énergies distribuées

Abstract : Four main types of arguments underline the importance of solar energy, and more broadly of renewable energies, in the global energy mix of the future: the reality of global climate change and the urgency of its mitigation; geopolitical issues; social issues, in particular access to fundamental social rights; democratic issues and the governance of scientific and technical choices. If non-fossil energies had been developed earlier, the situation would be different today in climatic, geopolitical, social and democratic terms. History is not being rewritten. But not all the mistakes of the past are destined to be repeated indefinitely. This article is devoted to sexplicit some of the paths to another future. Since 1990, successive IPCC reports have reinforced the hypothesis of climate change of essentially anthropogenic origin. The 5th Assessment Report (2013 - 2014) states that "the human influence on the climate system is clearly established". Was this level of acquired scientific certainty indispensable for action? As early as 1979 and the publication of the report of the American Academy of Sciences, Carbon Dioxide and Climate: a Scientific Assessment, scientific knowledge was sufficient to alert politicians, call for the precautionary principle and make a transition in order to rule out the risk of global warming, or even a bifurcation of the climate system with major and irreversible consequences for humanity. Some forty years have now elapsed during which the stakes have continued to rise and the necessary transformations have become increasingly urgent. Today, there is a growing awareness in society... We are showing that, while renewable energies - solar energy in particular - are an important part of the solution, they require major changes in energy systems. In particular, we examine the singularity and novelty of the energy transition to be made: it is not a question of adding one or more new energy sources to the existing ones, but, in particular, of putting an end to the exploitation of the main sources currently in use, fossil fuels. In particular, we mention trails for the development of research policies resolutely oriented towards the development of distributed energy systems - i.e. energy production that is differential in space and time - and comprising multiple energy sources of different sizes and natures inserted - at least in part - in interconnected networks. These systems have an orientation that could bring to the populations an appropriation of energy issues. They also question the nature of expertise and the possibility of citizen innovation in the field.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 18, 2020 - 9:38:48 AM
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  • HAL Id : hal-02510686, version 1

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Marc Delepouve, Bertrand Bocquet. Sortir des énergies fossiles : les atouts du solaire dans les énergies distribuées. 2020. ⟨hal-02510686⟩

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